Saturday, December 28, 2019

How Do Special Interest Groups and Mass Media Influence...

The media, interest groups, and political standard is a fascinating marriage in our mechanically exceptional social order. It is better comprehended when differentiated into their singular commitment to our social order to positively feel their effect on our day by day lives. Broad communications is characterized as a method for correspondence that achieves a huge volume of individuals in a short measure of time (broad communications). Interest groups could be better seen as an aggregation that is resolved to forestall or help change open arrangement without the need of being chosen (Twyman Whitney, 2009). Furthermore, popular conclusion is characterized as the whole of all unique convictions in a given populace. By understanding what these parts of the current political ideal model should speak to we can better see how this marriage has been tainted and the electorate is, no doubt deceived. The first motivation behind the media was to educate the general population of any news on an authentic, fair-minded, and truthful way and we managed the press in which constitutionally ensured flexibility of the press. Benefit spurs this new development of the press. Ads in all manifestations of media, is the primary wellspring of income for that organization and this drive revenue driven can structure inclinations so as to expand benefit by promotions that are equipped to the crowd, which as a general rule is the end customer of the paying sponsors (Petrova,Show MoreRelatedAmerica Is Known For Its Freedom Of Speech1682 Words   |  7 PagesAmerica is known for its freedom of speech. The dynamics of the American political system gives the American people a voice in what goes on in the government. The right to vote gives all citizens the opportunity to vote on various positions in the government and local areas. Political parties perform a number of functions for the American pol itical system. The functions and components of political parties, interest group activity, electoral politics, public opinion, political participationRead MoreU.S. Government Essay1155 Words   |  5 Pages1. Describe how the U.S. Constitution was formed. Use historical dates and references in your answer. The Constitution was completed and adopted in Philadelphia on September 17, 1987. One of its main functions was to ensure the thirteen states became worked as one rather than following separate laws. Before the Constitution there was a weaker government that encompassed many problems and holes that needed ratification. This lead to a convention in order to create a stronger central governmentRead More The Influence of the Media on Politics Essays4124 Words   |  17 PagesThe Influence of the Media on Politics Freedom of the press is guaranteed only to those who own one. This quote by A.J. Liebling illustrates the reality of where the media stands in todays society. Over the past twenty years there has been an increase in power throughout the media with regard to politics. The medias original purpose was to inform the public of the relevant events that occurred around the world. The job of the media is to search out the truth and relay that news to the peopleRead MoreEssay about Media Bias and Concentration3948 Words   |  16 PagesMedia Bias and Concentration After witnessing a hotly contested election and the massive amounts of campaigning done by both parties in effort to inform the public and reach as many voters as possible, one question still remains poignant: Where do we get our information? The myriad landscape that is the media today, can be accessed from almost anywhere, and has, in many ways, entrenched itself in American culture, replacing what used to be standard outlets of information. Television and printRead MoreRupert Murdoch ¬Ã‚ ¥S Media Monopoly5481 Words   |  22 PagesThe paper explores how dangerous such an important mass media as TV can be, if too many power is concentrated in just a few hands, and how our perception of reality can be manipulated by the selection and manipulation of information presented on TV. Table of Contents Introduction Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…..Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â… p. 3 1. The development of television Â…Â…Â….. p. 4 2. Globalisation of the TV market and its effects Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…Â…. p. 5 3. How legislation can influence the quality of journalism Â…Â…Â…Â…Â….. pRead More Public Opinion and Television Essay5264 Words   |  22 PagesPublic Opinion and Television The paper explores how dangerous such an important mass media as TV can be, if too many power is concentrated in just a few hands, and how our perception of reality can be manipulated by the selection and manipulation of information presented on TV. Introduction The following term paper deals with the development of television from its early beginnings in the 1920s up to now. My attention focuses on the powers which influence what is shown on TV and theRead MoreSocial Power of the News Media12127 Words   |  49 Pages1 Power and the News Media Teun A. van Dijk University of Amsterdam __________________ INTRODUCTION In the study of mass communication, there has been a continuous debate about the more or less powerful effects of the media on the public.1 Instead of reviewing these positions and their empirical claims, this chapter examines in more general terms some properties of the social power of the news media. This power is not restricted to the influence of the media on their audiences, but also involvesRead MoreLeadership Corruption Of The United States2298 Words   |  10 Pagesand open in political life of American. The political field of the United States is just as a big stage, on which those young talent and who are in authority, show off as an old saying expressed, â€Å"You just finished and I come on the scene†. However, there are doubts that people can hardly receive any hearing of news about a real corruption in American, for the statesman do not corrupt in any unacceptable ways. In recent years, many corruptive cases show frequent occurrence in America. It w as onlyRead MoreEssay about Mass Media Sociology4896 Words   |  20 PagesThe mass media has become a big part of our society and its counterparts. In a time span of 50 years this medium has influenced society to an extent where it has created wonders. This immaculate tool can control almost every action we perform, from speaking to the actions that every human being performs in society. The mass media has brought upon a new era of ideas and changes in the world we live in. As we analysis media in depth we will find many aspects of media which overlap and some of theRead MoreThe Medias Role in Regional and International Relations with Regards to Development, Transition, and Influence3313 Words   |  14 Pagesand Influence I study Journalism, so I felt that I had an opportunity to solidify the medias role in all facets of regional and international relations, with regards to development, transition, and influence (regional as well as global). I first chose examine Daniel Lerners development continuum, and this as a reference point, to discuss the role mass media plays in global transition and development, in particular how it is suited to aide in the socio-political development

Friday, December 20, 2019

Effects Of Smoking On College Campuses Essay - 1388 Words

The University of Miami knew a fully smoke-free campus would be a challenge, so the university tried to combat this challenge with three different phases to ease the campus community into a fully smoke-free area. Over the past four years, the Be Smoke Free Campaign has promoted a healthy environment for the students, staff, faculty, and visitors of the University of Miami. Phase one prohibited smoking with the exception of designated smoking areas around campus in September of 2011. Phase two in August 2012 simply cut the amount of designated smoking areas in half. The final phase, enacted in August of 2013, prohibited smoking on campus completely, so why are smokers seen consistently breaking the rules? Smoking on college campuses has been a prominent issue for over ten years. About â€Å"32.9 percent of 18 to 22-year-old, full-time college students had smoked in the previous 30 days in 2001† (Leppel). Since the percentage of college students smoking is high, it is not unli kely that the University of Miami has an issue with this problem. Although the University of Miami’s smoke-free policy was enacted in 2013, it will not be a success until there are concrete disciniplary actions and a full commitment from the whole ‘Cane Community. Smokers can be seen on campus everyday, especially surrounding the Richter Library, one of the most common places for people to smoke. Smoke-free signs cover the campus to remind students and faculty of the policy, but they go unnoticed. TheShow MoreRelatedEfforts to Reduce Smoking Among College Students Essay1272 Words   |  6 PagesSmoking has been reduced over the past two decades, but â€Å"cigarette smoking among college students is of concern because the smoking prevalence among college students did not decrease as it did among the general population,† (Harrar et al. 121). This statement shows the significance of efforts to reduce smoking among college students. I believe college campuses woul d benefit from a â€Å"no-smoking policy†. This policy would serve to eliminate the harmful effects of smoking and second-hand smoke onRead MoreSmoking On College Campuses Should Be Banned1675 Words   |  7 PagesSmoking, as one knows it, has become a stress-reliever worldwide. One will find a smoker pulling out a cigarette and lighting it up around every corner. Smoking has especially become a growing problem in college campuses. When a college student enters the college campus, they do not only enter a new campus, a new life is also entered. In this new experience, one will find themselves exploring new things. The power of the eye is remarkable in today’s society. When someone has a friend that is doingRead MoreShould Public Smoking Be A Smoke Free Campus?825 Words   |  4 Pagesquestion because it addresses topics about how campuses are continuing to eliminate smokers on campus, one way they eliminate it is by enforcing policies, however, if the polies are not followed there is a fined. In addition, it talks about why campuses are going smoke free, so this will be a great source to refer to when I address why I believe George Mason University should be a smoke free campus. Mostly importantly, the question if secondhand smoking is much of a problem is addressed. Many believeRead MoreNo Smoking Bans In Colleges Essay1078 Words   |  5 PagesNo Smoking Bans at College Smoking bans have become a new trend in colleges and universities. The effort is to making changes in the attitude and behavior of students to consider this habit as risky for a smoker, as well as the people around them and other environmental factors. Knowing the fact a growing concern is observed as harmful effects of second hand smoking are larger than that of first hand smoking. A smoke free campus policy will be a mere step in changing the trend of smoking and maintainingRead MoreIs Smoking A Bad Phenomenon?1306 Words   |  6 PagesSmoking is a bad phenomenon has widely spread especially on campus between college students. Despite all doctors and scientist are confirmed health dangers, economic dangers and social dangers for smoking there is a huge numbers of college students smokers. The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review concerning policy implementation in reference to campuses that are smoke-free. In spite of the general success in present decades of curbing the rate of smoking in various countries,Read MoreSmoking on College Campuses1260 Words   |  6 PagesThe days of smoking on college campuses is coming to an end! (Daneman) The Department of Health and Human Services made an announcement, backed by the White house, to act on getting colleges everywhere to enforce a tobacco free campus! (Daneman) Smoking is a choice made among st an individual and falls within the first amendment in the constitution along with eight more! So how can we legally ban smoking from a whole college campus? In the end, the individual is going to do what he/she pleases ifRead MoreThe Impact of Smoking Bans875 Words   |  3 PagesThe Impact of Smoking Bans Few issues over the use of public and commercial space ignite more impassioned disagreement than that over indoor smoking bans. With evidence of the dangers of second-hand smoking having achieved a state of being incontrovertible, lawmakers, lobby groups and public health advocacy groups have taken steps to diminish the exposure to second-hand smoke experienced by individuals on the whole. While the benefits of a smoking ban in bars, restaurants, clubs and other suchRead MoreUnited States Should Adapt Tobacco Free Policies On Their University School Grounds Essay2507 Words   |  11 PagesDid you know, smoking causes more than† 440,000 deaths† per year? (â€Å"Effects of Tobacco† 1). That is an overwhelming number of deaths that could be prevented if only the individuals did not use tobacco. As of 2008, East Tennessee State University has adopted a tobacco-free policy for not only the safety of students, but their overall mental and physical health as well. That policy has been increasing on college campuses at a nationwide level. As of 2009, the American College Health Association adoptedRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1329 Words   |  6 PagesThe college campuses in the United States have the majority of the population that uses drugs among society (Wadley Carlier, 2014). The ages of these students range from â€Å"18 to 24† that are the most likely candidates to use marijuana and are more susceptible to use and find themselves addicted while they are in college (College Drug Abuse, 2015). There is conflict on college campuses between the state and federal government laws because the college is ran by the state by falls under federal lawsRead MoreCauses Of Smoking Essay1288 Words   |  6 PagesRisk: Smoking A major public health issue among young adults is cigarette smoking. Many people know the relationship between lung cancer and smoking, but there are countless other health risks linked to smoking. Smoking can increase your risk for cancer of the bladder, throat and mouth, kidneys, cervix and pancreas. Smoking not only affects the smoker but the people around them. About 54% of American children are exposed to secondhand smoke (â€Å"Smoking: Do you really know the risks?â€Å"). Nonsmokers

Thursday, December 12, 2019

Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Free-Samples

Question: There are several changes from DSM IV to DSM 5 manuals in diagnostic criteria and grouping. Critically evaluate three of these major changes. Answer: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is an authoritative guide published by American Psychological Association (APA) used by health care professionals guiding the diagnosis for mental disorders containing symptoms, descriptions and criteria. Many editions of DSM are being modified, reviewed and enlarged when first DSM I was introduced by APA in 1952. New categories of diagnosis were introduced with distinct hierarchy in well-known practice recommending single pathology identification explaining clinical status symptoms (Birgegrd, Norring and Clinton 2012). Gradually, the concept of DSM III was abolished and the concept of co-morbidity was introduced confirming DSM IV during 1990s. In 2013, a new version was introduced by APA providing an official list of mental disorders. It guides treatment for mental disorders being the largest change reflecting scientific understanding of the mental issues and its treatment. A lot of modifications took place from DSM IV to D SM V having implications on the understanding and treatment of mental disorders. The modifications took place in seven aspects; autism spectrum, bipolar disorder, ADHD diagnosis, PTSD symptoms, dementia reclassification, intellectual disability and artificial categorization modification (Regier, Kuhl and Kupfer 2013). The following discussion involves the critical evaluation of three major changes from DSM IV to V in terms of bipolar disorder, autism spectrum and dementia reclassification. The main change occurred in DSM V is that the terminology of general medical condition is modified to another medical condition relevant for disorders. DSM IV failed to reflect upon the shared symptoms or features of diagnostic groups like bipolar disorders with psychotic disorders, internalizing (depressive, anxiety, somatic) or externalizing disorders (conduct, substance abuse, impulse control) (Cosgrove and Krimsky 2012). On a contrary, DSM V restructured interrelationships, across and within diagnostic chapters. The strength of earlier DSM classification was to diagnose baseline psychiatric diagnosis on the defined and operational criteron that resulted in inter-rater reliability. This was the greatest weakness in DSM IV where patients were formally diagnosed under which only half of the patients were actually treated. There was lack of operational categorization of subthreshold diagnoses in DSM IV whereas in DSM V, there is high recognition where large number of patients is seek ing treatment who were formally under Not Otherwise Specified (NOS) group (Kupfer, Kuhl and Regier 2013). Elimination of bipolar disorder is a major modification from DSM IV to V. DSM IV contains diagnosis of mixed episode, bipolar I disease requires that the person meet the full criteria simultaneously for major depressive episode and mania that is removed in DSM V. There is enhancement in the accuracy for diagnosis and its facilitation at early stage detection in the clinical settings. The criterion A now contains hypomanic and manic episodes including an emphasis on the energy and activity changes and mood in DSM V. This change from IV to V removed the restriction and helpful in diagnosing patients from DSM IV subdiagnostic bipolar syndromes (Grunze et al. 2017). In the new version, a specific terminology mixed features is added applying to episodes of hypomania and mania and previous criteria is removed. In this, depressive features and its episodes in the context of bipolar or depressive disorder are added when hypomania/mania features are present. DSM V also allows the accurate specification of particular conditions that is related to bipolar disorder that includes categorization of individuals with past history of major depressive disorders meeting the criteria for hypomaniac condition except duration criterion of consecutive four days (Swann et al. 2013). The second condition that comprises other specified bipolar related disorder having fewer symptoms of hypomania meeting criteria for full bipolar II syndrome however, duration for four days is sufficient. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder in DSM IV has few shortcomings; large proportion of patients who were treated for the bipolar disorders had to be allocated to NOS and vague groups. However, with the introduction of DSM V, bipolar disorders are identified with a new specifier of mixed features applied to hypomania or mania episodes where depressive features are exist. In DSM V, there is also elimination of childhood bipolar disorder as in DSM IV; there was a harmful over-diagnosis and treatment of this condition. However, in DSM V, there was removal of this condition replaced with Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD), where all children who were formally diagnosed with bipolar disorder will fall under the category DMDD (Etain et al. 2013). This new category does provide a new way to diagnose this condition more accurately matching set of symptoms characterized by extreme tempered outbursts. Many threshold groups have been added to bipolar disorders, depression and mixed sta tes that are operational in DSM V. The mania and hypomania episodes encountered during treatment of depression under certain conditions are also added under bipolar disorders. DSM V main lines the definition of major depressive disorders basic to DSM IV. Hypomanic and manic episodes are radically revised in this new version impacting on bipolar disorders. Three main changes are being witnessed in DSM V regarding gate questions of hypomania and mania (criterion A), reduction in exclusion criteria and vigorous effort for the operationalization of subthreshold syndromes in bipolar disorder that were earlier diagnosed as NOS (Uher et al. 2014). The mood change that is accompanied by persistent increase energy or activity levels is also included in DSM V. However, this new version is quite strict and restrictive excluding the people who report only one out of three bipolar symptoms and also irritable and elated mood. Apparently, individuals who had been diagnosed with bipolar I or II disorders or manic episodes in DSM IV are now being classified as subthreshold bipolar group under DSM V. On a contrary, the new strict DSM V rule is not data based and there is in deed contradiction of available evidence. According to Angst (2013) patients receiving treatment for major depressive disorders demonstrated one of the three gate questions clearly and with validity. In addition, Exclusion criteria are one justified and amplified change in DSM V concerning bipolar II disorder diagnosis. DSM IV major change in depression into hypomania was exclusion criteria principle. However, in DSM V, it explained that this condition persists at full level syndrome that is beyond physiological effect of the treatment being explicit bipolar II disorder criterion. DSM V is like DSM IVV allowing scope for clinical judgment to causality. There is also a new formal criterion for medication or substance-induced bipolar related disorder. According to Angst et al. (2012) DSM V will be able to diagnose bipolar II disorder twice as often as bipolar I having a prevalence approach. Bipolar II will be more frequently diagnosed in logical and justified manner explaining a milder condition more prevalent than severe mani a. According to Phillips and Kupfer (2013) during the long-term illness, bipolar patients experience milder conditions like minor depression rather than major syndromes. However, despite of the advancement made in the new version, bipolar disorder is still under-recognized in DSM V. The epidemiological studies and its re-analyses demonstrated that major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heterogeneous group with% hidden cases. It requires systematic screening for hypomania in individuals with previous history showing little appreciable impact on hidden bipolarity detection (Koukopoulos and Sani 2014). Concisely, even after DSM V introduction, vast majority of major depressive episodes (MDE) continued to be diagnosed under MDD. The second modification in DSM IV is autism spectrum diagnostics classification. In DSM IV, pervasive development disorders were also considered under autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This includes Aspergers disorder, autistic disorders and pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). However, with the introduction of DSM V released in 2013, significant modifications have been done in the ASDs categorization. The main reasons for change includes; there was difficulty in applying criteria for PDD subtypes schematically, children diagnosed with AS met the criteria for AD being similar and for controlling the exponential rise in cases (McPartland, Reichow and Volkmar 2012). In DSM V, the four separately classified issues that are very common being unified under ASDs header. The previous categories of DSM IV are no longer in use and separate levels are replaced under one umbrella of ASDs. The severity levels of ASDs are based on support needed for the patients in terms of challenges faced with repetitive behaviours, social communication and restricted interests. The revision suggests that older version was not precise and various clinicians diagnose patients with different disorders and also some changes diagnosis because of same symptoms differing year to year. In the new version, autism is defined by common set of behaviour characterized by single terminology according to severity levels 1, 2 and 3. The removal of PDD-NOS and Aspergers disorder is the significant change in DSM V and patients who are currently diagnosed with these conditions will be re-diagnosed and evaluated (Grzadzinski, Huerta and Lord 2013). However, this may create confusion among parents of children who are diagnosed with these conditions, adults and children who are strongly identified with these diagnoses. The new ASDs classification is stricter, thorough as compared to old criteria. In DSM V, more symptoms are required to meet the new criteria within arena of fixated interests or repetitive behaviours. There is also reorganization made in DSM V as DSM IV currently holding domains for ASDs includes impairments in communication, social interaction, restricted interests and repetitive behaviours. In DSM V, social interaction, communication domains have been merged into one entitled, Communication/Social Deficits (Frazier et al. 2012). This is a remarkable change where language development delay is no more necessary for the diagnosis. Although, the modifications are made with a hope to make ASDs diagnosis more reliable, specific and valid, however, there are legitimate concerns raised regarding the impact of people on the spectrum of autism. The biggest concern is that the higher functioning patients will no longer be able to meet the guidelines of strict diagnostic criteria and therefore , will face difficulties in accessing the relevant services. The main question is what will happen to the patients who are currently diagnosed with PDD-NOS or Aspergers disorder (Kim et al. 2014). There is also growing uncertainty that how the educational and state services, insurance companies will adopt to these modifications. In DSM V, to fulfil ASD criteria, symptoms must be present during childhood manifesting social demands exceeding capacities having a marked effect on the functional ability and level of severity specified. Apart from removal of separate Aspergers and autism categories to ADSs, there is also removal of criteria including; cognitive and language delay, lack of imaginative or varied play. The levels are also well specified under DSM V. Level 3 comprises of categorization requiring highly substantial support measuring severe deficits in non-verbal and verbal communication, very limited response and initiation as compared to others. Level 2 requires substantial support having marked deficits in communication, abnormal response and limited initiation speaking few words. Lastly, level 1 category requires support having deficits in social communication, unsuccessful overtures and deficits in response and initiation (Mahjouri and Lord 2012). The new diagnosis for autism in DSM V is purely based on behaviours and no differentiation of Asperger syndrome, PDD-NOS and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder. There is no definition for aetiology within ASD with simplified approach and fewer ways for a person to meet criterion in two domains. The social communication domain also recognizes the social function of communication being some of the advantages of DSM V ASD (Lai et al. 2013). It is evident that ASD changes will be going to affect people and families currently diagnosed with ASD and pose challenge to clinicians on how they are going to use this new criterion for the evaluation of children and its impact on availability of resources. Reclassification of dementia is another modification from DSM IV to V. In the new version, dementia and learning or memory difficulties categories called amnestic disorders are subsumed into a new category of major neuro-cognitive disorder (NCD) (Tay et al. 2015). This new criteria splits the disorder into broad severities of major and minor for encouraging early detection, treatment of the issues. The terminology, dementia in etiological subtypes is not precluded from application where this term is standard. In DSM V, cognitive impairment at less severe level, a new disorder permitting diagnosis of less disabling syndromes, mild NCD, nonetheless might be the focus of treatment and concern. The diagnostic criteria in DSM IV comprises of memory impairment (category A1) and fulfilling of one or more symptoms like apraxia, aphasia, agnosia and executive functioning disturbance (category A2). Category B- the cognitive deficits in A2, A1 causing significant impairment in occupational or s ocial functioning representing significant decline in functioning level. Category C defines that cognitive deficits does not occur exclusively during course of delirium (Sachdev et al. 2014). DSM V criteria (previously dementia) is now NCD providing evidence for cognitive decline from decreased performance level in one or more domains of cognitive functioning like language, memory and learning, complex attention, executive function, social cognition and perceptual-motor being category A with no sub classification (Strydom et al. 2013). Category B defining cognitive deficits interfering with independence and assistance required for activities of daily living (ADL) classified under NCD. Category C defines that cognitive deficits is not exclusive in delirium and a new category D is introduced defining that cognitive deficits not explained by other mental disorders like schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. The new version focuses on the decline from level of functioning rather than cognitive deficits and term NCD removed the stigmatization that people have about older term dementia. There is potential fallout in this change as healthcare professionals have to spend considerable amount of time in understanding and transitioning to new system learning the differences between minor and major NCDs and explanation of significance and differences to the patients and family members. This new system can confuse older individuals about dementia as they consider it as Alzheimer failing to comprehend between the two conditions. Another challenge is lack of recognition regarding the minor condition as patients may not be serious about the progression to major condition (Carpenter and Tandon 2013). Using DSM V, clinician will diagnose major or minor condition due to Alzheimer and MCI will be diagnosed as mild NCD due to Alzheimer leaving the end result confusing for the clinician, patient and family members. The concept needs to be explained to the population with correct guidance for eliminating the confusion. From the above discussion, it can be concluded that DSM V is a strict, advanced and restrictive form than DSM IV. DSM IV is a statistical and diagnostic manual adopted by APA in correlation with ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders by World Health Organization (WHO). DSM IV was used as an axial system grouping disorders into broad categories like personality disorders, mental retardation, and all psychological categories except personality disorder and mental retardation. In contrast, DSM V provides better classification of dementia, autism and bipolar disorder. Aspergers disorder and pervasive disorder are put under category of ASD, bipolar disorder falling under DMDD and reclassification of dementia. In this, amnestic disorders are subsumed into new category NCD splitting into broad categories. DSM V has controversial issues like Aspergers disorder removal and inclusion within Autism much to dismay of current patients with this disorder. However, DSM V is a rig ht step towards acknowledging new terms and mixed groups in bipolar disorder. In addition, it created confusion among the clinicians and require consideration in learning and explaining the new version to the patients. It causes potential fallout for the patients who are currently being diagnosed or treated for the conditions that are being removed or merged. Therefore, DSM V provide significant changes from DSM IV providing tightened up definitions, adding rating levels of severity and elimination or grouping of specific disorders. The diagnostic criteria are clarified and provide changes for the clinicians outlining more valid diagnoses. References Angst, J. (2013) Bipolar disorders in DSM-5: strengths, problems and perspectives.International journal of bipolar disorders,1(1), 12 Angst, J., Gamma, A., Bowden, C.L., Azorin, J.M., Perugi, G., Vieta, E. and Young, A.H. (2012) Diagnostic criteria for bipolarity based on an international sample of 5,635 patients with DSM-IV major depressive episodes.European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience262(1), 3-11 Birgegrd, A., Norring, C. and Clinton, D. (2012) DSM?IV versus DSM?5: Implementation of proposed DSM?5 criteria in a large naturalistic database.International Journal of Eating Disorders,45(3), 353-361 Carpenter, W.T. and Tandon, R. (2013) Psychotic disorders in DSM-5: summary of changes.Asian journal of psychiatry,6(3), 266-268 Cosgrove, L. and Krimsky, S. (2012) A comparison of DSM-IV and DSM-5 panel members' financial associations with industry: a pernicious problem persists.PLoS Medicine,9(3), e1001190 Etain, B., Aas, M., Andreassen, O.A., Lorentzen, S., Dieset, I., Gard, S., Kahn, J.P., Bellivier, F., Leboyer, M., Melle, I. and Henry, C. (2013) Childhood trauma is associated with severe clinical characteristics of bipolar disorders.The Journal of clinical psychiatry,74(10), 991-998 Frazier, T.W., Youngstrom, E.A., Speer, L., Embacher, R., Law, P., Constantino, J., Findling, R.L., Hardan, A.Y. and Eng, C. (2012) Validation of proposed DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorder.Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry,51(1), 28-40 Grunze, H., Vieta, E., Goodwin, G.M., Bowden, C., Licht, R.W., Azorin, J.M., Yatham, L., Mosolov, S., Mller, H.J., Kasper, S. and Members of the WFSBP Task Force on Bipolar Affective Disorders Working on this topic (2017) The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for the Biological Treatment of Bipolar Disorders: Acute and long-term treatment of mixed states in bipolar disorder.The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 1-57 Grzadzinski, R., Huerta, M. and Lord, C. (2013) DSM-5 and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs): an opportunity for identifying ASD subtypes.Molecular autism,4(1), 12 Kim, Y.S., Fombonne, E., Koh, Y.J., Kim, S.J., Cheon, K.A. and Leventhal, B.L. (2014) A comparison of DSM-IV pervasive developmental disorder and DSM-5 autism spectrum disorder prevalence in an epidemiologic sample.Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry,53(5), 500-508 Koukopoulos, A. and Sani, G. (2014) DSM?5 criteria for depression with mixed features: a farewell to mixed depression.Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica,129(1), 4-16 Kupfer, D.J., Kuhl, E.A. and Regier, D.A. (2013) DSM-5The future arrived.Jama,309(16), 1691-1692. Lai, M.C., Lombardo, M.V., Chakrabarti, B. and Baron-Cohen, S. (2013) Subgrouping the Autism Spectrum": Reflections on DSM-5.PLoS biology,11(4), e1001544 Mahjouri, S. and Lord, C.E. (2012) What the DSM-5 portends for research, diagnosis, and treatment of autism spectrum disorders.Current psychiatry reports,14(6), 739-747 McPartland, J.C., Reichow, B. and Volkmar, F.R. (2012) Sensitivity and specificity of proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder.Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry,51(4), 368-383 Phillips, M.L. and Kupfer, D.J. (2013) Bipolar disorder diagnosis: challenges and future directions. The Lancet,381(9878), 1663-1671 Regier, D.A., Kuhl, E.A. and Kupfer, D.J. (2013) The DSM?5: Classification and criteria changes.World Psychiatry,12(2), 92-98 Sachdev, P.S., Blacker, D., Blazer, D.G., Ganguli, M., Jeste, D.V., Paulsen, J.S. and Petersen, R.C. (2014) Classifying neurocognitive disorders: the DSM-5 approach.Nature Reviews Neurology,10(11), 634-642 Strydom, A., Chan, T., Fenton, C., Jamieson-Craig, R., Livingston, G. and Hassiotis, A. (2013) Validity of criteria for dementia in older people with intellectual disability.The American journal of geriatric psychiatry,21(3), 279-288 Swann, A.C., Lafer, B., Perugi, G., Frye, M.A., Bauer, M., Bahk, W.M., Scott, J., Ha, K. and Suppes, T. (2013) Bipolar mixed states: an international society for bipolar disorders task force report of symptom structure, course of illness, and diagnosis.American Journal of Psychiatry,170(1), 31-42. Tay, L., Lim, W.S., Chan, M., Ali, N., Mahanum, S., Chew, P., Lim, J. and Chong, M.S. (2015) New DSM-V neurocognitive disorders criteria and their impact on diagnostic classifications of mild cognitive impairment and dementia in a memory clinic setting.The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry,23(8), 768-779 Uher, R., Payne, J.L., Pavlova, B. and Perlis, R.H. (2014) Major depressive disorder in dsm?5: implications for clinical practice and research of changes from DSM?IV. Depression and anxiety,31(6), 459-471

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Coming of Age- Perks of Being a Wallflower free essay sample

The Perks of being a wallflower The coming of age theme In The Perks of being a Wallflower Is that he Is overcoming his first love. It explores In the mind of Charlie all his emotion and drama. Dealing with all the things that happen in Charlies life. He had to grow up and learn to let go of the things that had happened in the past. Charlie is new and he wasnt used to having attention from people at school, hes a aloofer, meaning he just sits and watches from the sidelines, doesnt Join in on anything.He is coping with his friends suicide causing him anxiety and fear, he has to grow up and move on from what has happened in the past, but thats what Charlie finds difficult, he cant seem to move on and let go of his old life. Charlie had to try and forget about his Aunt molesting him. We will write a custom essay sample on Coming of Age- Perks of Being a Wallflower or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page As he grows up, things bring up flashbacks, causing him to be hospitalized. This Is caused when Sam touched his leg, he freaks UT. As he grows up being a teenager things are easily triggered.Charlie goes crazy Inside his head because nobody knows about what happened, he cant move on unless he tells someone about what happened. Thats what Is going to set him free to live his life. He has no idea how to deal with it, so he has to grow up and speak up, which is outside of his comfort zone. He thinks about suicide but he knows its not the way out. He really had to grow up to get over everything that had happened. He goes through traumatic events as a child which result in his unique personality. Appreciate those around you, but do more then make them happy. Be honest with them and let them appreciate you for you, completely and truthfully. Its okay to be a wallflower, but only as long as you participate often enough to let people notice that you are there reading the book it helped you understand Charlies realization of self doubt, you watched as Charlie grew. He finally knew It was okay to be different.