Thursday, November 28, 2019
Spiders Spiders This report deals with testing the toxicity of certain chemicals on spiders, and determining the toxicity by how it affects it's ability to weave it's web. This report contains research on the four chemicals (benzedrine, chloral hydrate, caffeine, and alcohol) as wellas the spiders and their webs. Spiders are of course found in the class Arachnidia, which also contain mites, scorpions, and other arthropods. The order which spiders are classified under is called Araneae, a word of Latin origin. Most spiders are land dwelling, but some can be aquatic. Those that are aquatic spend most of their lives in or around water. Spiders can live in a vast amount of different places around the world. Jumping spiders have been collected on Mt. Everest at a height of 22,000 feet, the highest elevation at which any animal has been collected (Orkin, Insect Zoo 1). Adult species vary greatly in size, which is a contributing factor in the prey they choose, and also the way they catch this prey. Spiders range from less than three hundredths of an inch to more than 10 inches. All spiders are carnivorous in their eating habits, insects being first on their menu. Spiders usually catch live animals because the movement of the prey attracts its attention. Some spiders have poor vision, and rather depend on the movement of it's web to locate an insect. (Orkin, Insect Zoo 2). The prey is usually wrapped in silk before the spider injects the venom to kill it. Yet the larger the spiders, the larger its prey. Some spiders have been known to kill vertebrate animals, such as fishing spiders, who thrive on small fish, or bird spiders, feeding on small birds from South America, as well as a variety of lizards. Some species have even been known to attack snakes. When food is scarce, mainly during winter months, spiders have no trouble have no trouble with food, most can go months without eating. A spider's structure is irregular when compared to other animals, yet similar to those of other arachnids. An arachnid is of course classified on the number of it's legs, which happens to be eight. Spiders have two main body regions: the cephalothorax and the abdomen . The cephalothorax consists of the head and the thorax, which are fused together. Insects have three main body regions, a head, thorax, and abdomen. Other arachnids have those two regions connected through a broad waist. All spiders also have simple eyes, lacking compound eyes only found in insects. Spiders can have many pairs of eyes however, this number often reaches four. Spiders do not have an antenna either. (Orkin, Insect Zoo 6) Many spiders secrete a fluid in their posterior abdomens which is later extruded as a silk. This fibrous protein is used to weave webs, snares, shelters, and/or egg sacs. A spider uses fingerlike spinnerets to disperse this silk. Most spin more than one kind of silk to customize its web, or to just fit its purpose. For example, the spider makes some parts of its web not sticky so that it can run across it and not get caught. Another source says that spiders first lay down a type of silk known as ?dry thread?, with which they weave a ?dry spiral. Once this is completed, the spider lays down a sticky spiral of thread and goes on to eat the dry one. The sticky spiral must be replaced every couple days because it loses its ?stickiness.? Some scientists suggest that the pattern of an orb web (most common type of web used by spiders) is designed to attracted insects. These webs are thought to produce patterns that resemble those reflected by numerous flowers in UV light. Since insects only see in UV light, they might as well fly into a trap (Lyons, Spider Silk 1). Spider silk has been recognized for centuries as a high quality fiber. A few pairs of stockings and gloves have been made from the silk as early as the 16th century. Various attempts have been made to produce it commercially, yet have failed. New efforts are currently under construction as more people are finding new ways to use a strong, elastic fiber. A few of these
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Dictatorship essays In modern times, no dictator can take total power by force alone. In order to gain support, they must offer something beneficial to the people. Unfortunately what is thought to be beneficial can be extremely harmful and cruel. Three specific dictators during the World War II period were Mussolini, Hitler, and Stalin. Joseph Stalin was the successor of Lenin after his death. He had only one goal and that was to finish what Lenin had started. Basically that was to build a classless society in which the means of production were in the hands of the people. After Stalin established power, he developed new goals to make the Soviet Union a leader in industry. He wanted to get rid of Russias backwardness. For this reason Stalin proposed several five year plans. These plans were aimed at improving industry and economic growth. He developed a command economy, which meant government made all economic decisions. Under Stalin, the government controlled all businesses. Stalin also took agriculture under control of the government. He forced people to give up their privately owned land and live on government-owned farms or on large farms that were owned and operated by groups, also known as collectives. The state set all prices and controlled access to farm supplies. (Comptons Encyclopedia, 1990, Joseph Sta lin S570) On July 29, 1921, Adolf Hitler was introduced as Fuehrer of the Nazi Party. Fuehrer basically meant leader. By November 1923, the Nazis held approximately 55,000 followers and were the biggest and most powerful in Germany. The Nazi Party demanded action of Hitler. Hitler knew that he would lose his support if he didnt do something fast. So he and his party developed a plan to kidnap the leaders of the Bavarian government and force to accept Hitler as their leader. On November 9th, 1923 Hitler and his Nazis went to Munich and tried to take it over. At this point they were not powerful enough to ...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Gender equality, Islamic Law and the Modern Muslim state - Essay Example The issue of gender equality in Islam was not a central notion nor was it addressed until the 20th century by Muslim jurists. The status of Men and Women in Islam is continuously explained by the Muslim scholars in the light of teachings of Islam and Holy Quran. The Islamic laws negated the modern authoritative position attributed to men in modern states and gave equal rights to the women. Although Islam has given equal rights to women, the misinterpretation of its laws and principles has exposed the religion as a typecast. Islam permits women to hold any office outside her home as long as that post is not derogatory to the feminine nature. The only condition which Islam presses on the women is that their working outside their homes should not be a source of embarrassment for them and their families and must not harm their reputation as a woman and a human being. It also impresses on the women to strike a balance between their jobs outside their homes and their duties as a mother or a wife. The teachings of Islam also do not forbid Muslim women to interact with the opposite gender in public as per the requirement of their jobs . However, the gender gap index of the world in 2009 shows that most Muslim countries have performed below the global average and are not showing any signs of improvements in the previous years. Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Algeria and Bahrain however, remain an exception to this. Yemen was rated at the bottom of the 134 nations graded for gender score index in 2009 . Additionally, it has been reported continuously that most of the Muslim women are denied basic human rights, ranging from permission of a guardian for marriage to abeyance of husband in all fields of life. Most of the people also blame Islam for the frequent incidents of Muslim men torturing women and providing them with below par living standards. According to experts on the subject, the true identity of Islam prevailed for a very brief period after its inception. Initially the Umayyads played havoc with the principles of Islam and then the Abbasids inflicted much of the damage to the concept of the religion. It did not end he re and the monarchs who ruled Iran continued to distort the religion by forcing their women to submit to the will of men. Another factor responsible for inequality of gender in Islam is colonialism. From 20th century onwards, colonialism has had a profound effect on the internal and external structure of the society. Through this concept, the already established norms and traditions were completely destroyed and novel foreign norms were imposed. It also exaggerated the existing gender divisions and labor roles of the two genders. Resultantly, the Islamic society completely collapsed with an environment of complete confusion. Men tried to find solace in rigid cultural customs e.g. forcing their women to cover themselves with veils and making them invisible in the eyes of the society. So much so that the princesses of once Mughul Empire were forced to indulge in prostitution. However, experts believe that understanding the complete scenario is essential before criticizing the principl es of another religion. The religious experts of Islam believe that Quran has given spiritual and moral equality to both men and women. This is clear from many verses in Quran clearly which spell out that men and women in Islam are in fact each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s protectors and complement each other. There is a strong bond of respect between the two genders and
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Learning Theory and Simulation Applications for Aviation Training - Essay Example The use of simulation training in the preparation of military and civilian pilots cannot be ignored and this is mainly used because training based on actual equipment in the real world can be prohibitively expensive and dangerous. "In fact, the military and the commercial aviation industry are probably the biggest investors in simulation-based training. These simulations range in cost, fidelity, and functionality. Many simulation systems have the ability to mimic detailed terrain, equipment failures, motion, vibration, and visual cues about a situation." (Salas and Cannon-Bowers, 2001, p 471). In the training of military and civilian pilots, three essential learning theories such as behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism are employed. One of the major concepts which guide the design of flight training simulators today is that "transfer of training is highest when similarity of the training and transfer situations is the highest . . . this is the governing principle for most simu lators that are built." ( Adams, 1979). Therefore, simulation training can be comprehended as one of the most effective and practical methods of aviation training which corresponds to the utility of learning theories in the training of civil and military training. Simulation training reflects the most advantageous outcomes
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Business - Essay Example The environment, as a result, is influenced in a negative way. On the other hand, globalization has a positive impact on poverty reduction and wealth generation of the nations, thus proving them with a wider range of opportunities for sustainable development. Introduction Globalization, as a process of unification of global markets, has been much discussed in the recent years. There exist different opinions on the issue Ã¢â¬â some view globalization as a positive thing, while others Ã¢â¬â as a negative. However, a general common opinion is that globalization is one of the principal vehicles for economic growth and wealth generation. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to research and analyze the role of globalization in the modern world as that of the driver of economic growth and wealth generation. In addition, the relationship between globalization and sustainable development will be assessed and analyzed in order to determine compatibility of the two concepts. The analysis will be based on current examples in areas such as poverty alleviation and environmental protection. ... le development and how the two principles can be used on practice with the goal of achieving a sustainable competitive advantage in the global marketplace. In order to achieve the set goals the meaning of both concepts Ã¢â¬â globalization and sustainable development Ã¢â¬â should be defined in the first place. Definitions Knight (2000, 12) defines globalization as a Ã¢â¬Å"growing interdependence of national economies - involving consumers, producers, suppliers, and governments in different countries.Ã¢â¬ As a result, boundaries between foreign and domestic markets are loosing their significance and businesses have more freedom to operate in foreign countries. Among the results of the process of globalization is, as Dunning (1993, 43) outlines, intensification of competition. As an economic term, globalization refers to the increasing integration of global economy caused by Ã¢â¬Å"incessant flows of goods and services, capital, technology and information across national borde rsÃ¢â¬ (Lucas 2004, 1). At the same time, globalization stimulates international communication and intercultural exchange. So, in a broad sense globalization can be called a continuous process of internationalization that increases interdependence of world countries in such aspects as economy, politics and culture, among others. As for sustainable development, it can be defined as a systemÃ¢â¬â¢s desire or tendency to continuously improve and achieve certain social objectives, such as social wealth and health, improved education, increased volume of resources or increased number of social freedoms (Pearce, Barbier, and Markandya 1990, 2). Though such an improvement within the system does not have any time limits, the term implies that the changes taking place always lead to improvement and benefits the system
Friday, November 15, 2019
Smoking as a Public Health Issue INTRODUCTION Smoking is an extremely crucial public health issue which is considered to be an immediate and serious threat to many developing countries across the globe (WHO 2005). Being one of the most significant determinants of increased rate of mortality and ill-health throughout the world, smoking is still a preventable epidemic (OTC 2005). Active cigarette smoking has long been known to predispose common people to several types of mouth diseases, lung cancer, atherosclerotic vascular diseases, impotence etc. and enhanced exposure to environmental tobacco smoke has deleterious effects to public health (Ong and Glantz 2004). Cigarette is utilised as an apparatus for self-administering nicotine which significantly causes drug dependency. It has been observed that nicotine inhalation via cigarette smoking is far more swift technique of drug intake as compared to heroin injections because nicotine takes not more than 7 seconds to travel from lungs into brain whereas, it takes 14 seconds for the heroin to reach the brain (DiFranza, Savageau and Fletcher et al 2007). Smoking prevalence as a global epidemic necessitates serious attention as about 1.3 billion people across the globe have been reported to smoke cigarettes and thereby experience numerous smoking-related health issues (Webb, Bain and Pirozzo 2005). In accordance with a study it has been estimated that by 2025-2030 approximately 10 million people are anticipated to die because of widespread smoking habitude (Edwards 2004). There are numerous ramifications of smoking in almost every area of knowledge including politics, economics, psychiatry, psychology, sociology, anthropology, pharmacology and pathology. This all-inclusive nature of the subject encompassing the bio-psychosocial segments of life makes it an appealing exploratory premise for the study. 1.1 Overview of the Report The report is designed to highlight the key epidemiological evidences pertaining to cigarette smoking, based on the global mortality rates and several stages of the worldwide tobacco epidemics. Moreover, the epidemiology of smoking habitude amongst general population of UK has been represented on the basis of age, gender and socio-economic factors. The central part of the report discusses a number of smoking related risk factors to public health and also evaluates the responsiveness of public towards the identified risks. Later segment of the report proposes the practical interventions to address the global epidemic of smoking which subsequently leads to conclude the overall study. 1.3 Rationale of the Study The main objective of this report is to accentuate smoking as a major public health issue and highlight the related health risks to general society based on the epidemiological evidences. By expounding on the public behaviour towards smoking and its damaging effects to the general populace, the study attempts to appraise the subject area. The report also aims to evaluate the effectiveness of current public health services pertaining to smoking cessation by probing in the interventions designed to reduce the underlying risks and improve public health. CIGARETTE SMOKING: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE The epidemiological evidences suggest that the consistently augmenting patterns of smoking lead to enhance worldwide mortality rates and the recent studies suggest that the developing countries have slightly higher smoking induced mortality rate especially in men, as compared to the developed countries (Table: 01). Table: 01 Estimates of Smoking Induced Global Mortality Rates Millions of Death from Smoking (Uncertainty Range) Men Women Developed Countries 2.43 (2.13 2.78) 75% 25% Developing Countries 2.41 (1.80 3.15) 84% 16% Total 4.83 (3.94 5.93) 80% 215 Source: Ezzati and Lopez 2000 In western countries smoking prevalence has been estimated to be 30% which is considerably less as compared to Asian countries where smoking prevalence is evidently incremental as for example 53% in Japan, 63% in China and 73% in Vietnam (European Commission 2007). There has been significant variation in EU pertaining to smoking trends as for instance 18% in Sweden to 42% in Greece however; the average smoking prevalence in EU was about 32% (European Commission 2007).Ã The segmentation of worldwide tobacco epidemic in four different stages has been exhibited below in Figure: 01, Figure: 01 STAGES OF THE WORLDWIDE TOBACCO EPIDEMIC Source: http://www.info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/types/lung/smoking/#cancer Smoking trends in Great Britain indicate that the overall gender-specific adult smoking rates have been declined by approximately 0.4% per annum since the year 2000 (Robinson and Bugler 2008) however, the most recent statistics reveal that smoking prevalence during 2007-2008 in UK has remained more or less the same. Gender-specific cigarette smoking trends in UK during 2004-2008 are exhibited below in Table: 02, TABLE: 02 CIGARETTE SMOKING BY SEX (2004-2008), UK PERCENTAGE (%) 2004 2005 2006 2007 2007 Men 26 25 23 22 22 Women 23 23 21 20 21 All 25 24 22 21 22 Source: General Lifestyle Survey 2008 The age-specific smoking prevalence trends observed in UK indicate that the age group of women between 20-24 years i.e. approximately 31% of young women in UK are indulged in smoking behaviour and similarly, men aged between 25-34 i.e. approximately 30% of men are also found to be regular smokers (Friis and Sellers 2009). Age-specific cigarette smoking trends in UK during 1978-2008 are exhibited below in Table: 03, TABLE: 03 CIGARETTE SMOKING BY AGE (1978-2008), UK AGE % 16-19 20-24 25-34 35-49 50-59 60+ 1978 34% 44% 45% 45% 45% 30% 1988 26% 37% 36% 36% 33% 23% 1998 31% 40% 35% 31% 28% 16% 2008 22% 30% 27% 24% 22% 13% Source: General Lifestyle Survey 2008 Representing the link between cigarette smoking and socio-economic sector of the UK society, it has been observed in a survey that smoking is much more prevalent amongst people associated with routine and manual occupations which includes approximately 30% of men and 27% of women whereas, people associated with managerial and professional occupations exhibit a slightly reduced smoking trend which includes 14% of men and 14% of women following smoking behaviour (Robinson and Bugler 2008). Socio-economic classification of cigarette smoking trends in UK during 2008 are exhibited below in Table: 04, TABLE: 04 SMOKING IN UK: SOCIO-ECONOMIC CLASSIFICATION PERSONS AGED 16 AND OVER, GREAT BRITAIN: 2008 (%) Men Women Large employers and higher managerial 14 11 Higher professional 12 12 Lower managerial and professional 16 16 Intermediate 21 22 Small employers / own account 22 21 Lower supervisory and technical 26 24 Semi-routine 31 28 Routine 33 30 Source: General Lifestyle Survey 2008 SMOKING INDUCED RISK FACTORS TO PUBLIC HEALTH Smoking patterns are greatly influenced by the individuals bio-psychosocial status and considerably vary depending upon diverse factors including fiscal condition, population size, age, gender, and the existence of regulatory models. It has been studied that social pressures play an integral role in an individuals conformation towards a specific set of beliefs or behaviour and smoking too, like other forms of substance dependencies is shaped up in accordance with the surrounding environment of a smoker (Killoran et al 2006). Gender-specific smoking induced risk factors considerably fluctuate depending upon the societal, cultural and religious beliefs as for example 40% of young women in Spain have been reported to indulge in active smoking behaviour on the other hand, China remains less affected when it comes to smoking habitude in women which has been reported to be less than 5% only (European Commission 2007). Similar is the case with other Asian countries including India, Pakistan , Bangladesh etc. where smoking induced risks to women are significantly less as compared to men because of conservative culture and traditions in the region. Moreover, the statistics also exhibit that the smoking induced risk factors are less common in older age groups, in both men and women as the lowest ratio of smoking has been observed amongst people aged 60 and over (Merrill 2010) because younger generation is much more enthusiastic to experiment and usually exhibits callous attitude towards health risks. There has been a sustained and analogous pattern of smoking induced risks observed between both the manual and non-manual populace of the socio-economic sector in UK, which signifies the growing awareness of public towards the underlying public health issue. Apart from bio-psychosocial risk factors there are a number of other smoking related risks to public health which are summarised as follows: 3.1 Passive Smoking Second hand smoking, environmental smoking or passive smoking are all detrimental and risk the life of a non-smoker that is consciously or unconsciously exposed to hazardous effects of smoking induced chemical compounds and probable human carcinogens. Passive smoking has been identified as the most critical cause of smoking related ill-health and incremental mortalities in general population, due to lung cancers and coronary heart diseases. 3.2 Tobacco Carcinogenesis Excessive tobacco consumption in the form of cigarette, cigar, pipe smoking enhances the risk to mouth, larynx, and oesophagus cancers and if complimented by heavy alcohol intake, can subsequently trigger the tumours in tobacco carcinogenesis (DoH 2007). 3.3 Occupational Hazards Persistent interaction between smoking and a variety of industrial agents can develop a number of cancers as suggested by numerous experimental and epidemiologic data. It has been studied that the smokers working within the environment containing asbestos or uranium ores significantly provides the means to stimulate tobacco carcinogens and an increased risk of lung cancer (DoH 2007). 3.4 Coronary Heart Diseases Several studies suggest that cigarette smoking significantly contributes in premature sudden death from coronary diseases especially in populations where arteriosclerosis is prevalent thus, exerting a pronounced secondary effect to hyperlipidemia and hypercholesteremia subsequently increasing the risk of hypertension and heart attack (Ong and Glantz 2004). Air Pollution Studies suggest that excessive air pollution complimented by cigarette smoking, leads to death from acute pulmonary disease and lung cancer. The carcinogens contained in pollutant air is inhaled in relatively small doses and on the other hand, cigarette smoke is highly concentrated and inhaled directly into the lungs therefore, the damaged caused to the respiratory tract by the air pollution alone, is comparatively less than the damage caused by the intense tobacco smoke. However, for non-smokers the passive smoking in combination with the pollutant air can be a serious risk to health as heavily polluted air contains approximately 100,000 particles per cubic centimetre whereas inhaled cigarette smoke contains more than 5 billion particles per cubic centimetre (Webb, Bain and Pirozzo 2005). ANALYSING PUBLIC RESPONSIVENESS TO THE IDENTIFIED RISKS Despite of consistent efforts by the local governments and numerous international health organisations, it has been observed that the public awareness programs regarding smoking cessation are considered to be effective to varying degrees; as it is extremely difficult to determine the consumers perception towards the smoking related health consequences and addictive nature (Bauld et al 2003). The consumer base in the developing countries remain exceedingly unacquainted with the country-specific smoking related information and health policies as the preventive interventions like awareness campaigns, registration system to assess disease patterns and the identification of smoking related trends are not vigilantly established. Moreover, the consumer base in the developing countries expect low-cost and reliable preventive measures however, the fiscal limitations makes it difficult for the local governments to entrench inexpensive and equally effective smoking awareness schemes and interve ntions; as a result of which the public responsiveness towards addressing the smoking epidemic is significantly pitiful especially where it looms largest. In addition to this, smoking cessation becomes a complex issue due to its addictive attribute and several studies have rated it as amongst the most evil drug dependency as compared to heroin and cocaine (Donaldson and Donaldson 2003). The addictive trait of cigarette smoking is characterised by a cluster of behavioural, cognitive and physiological phenomena which consequently develops due to enhanced substance use resulting in increased desire for smoking which becomes a persistent exercise and as the time passes, the chances of withdrawal becomes unattainable. It has also been studied that the superfluous social acceptance of smoking has significantly contributed to its sweeping popularity and prevalence amongst the general population (Marmott and Wilkinson 2006) and this ignorant public attitude combined with lack of awareness; results in natural inclination of the masses to consider it a harmless and a nontoxic habitude (Stevens, Raftery, Mant and Simpson 2004). From the economic perspective, the tobacco industry generates humungous revenues by influencing the developing countries as a profitable target for market expansion, which is mutually advantageous to the developing countries leading them to compromise on their public health issues against enhanced fiscal benefits. Tobacco industry considerably influences the political set-up of several countries to advertise and promote cigarette smoking and their intriguing commercial campaigning significantly draw the attention of younger generation that are already less-informed and easily fall prey to such marketing tactics. Pre-targeted and smartly designed commercials significantly mislead the naive public and successfully manoeuvre them by relentless denial of tobaccos unfavourable health impacts. PRACTICAL INTERVENTIONS FOR SMOKING EPIDEMIC The smoking related health outcomes can be substantially controlled by integrating effective tobacco control policies and interventions that are capable to cease or significantly reduce its prevalence and consumption amongst the general population. It has been studied that tobacco smoking does not limit the effects of its pervasiveness to smoker itself rather the people present in the surrounding environment (Farmer and Lawrenson 2004) as for example, non-smoking adults including cohabiting partners and children of the smoker are also adversely affected. Hence, it becomes essential to edify the smokers to acknowledge their social responsibility towards the general public and strongly discourage them to exhibit their smoking habitude in public (Douglas et al 2007). The success rate of the practical interventions adopted in the developed countries has found to be much practicable as compared to the developing countries because the regulatory frameworks are stringent and the law enforce ment agencies are also equally efficient. In order to enable the general population to effectively combat with smoking-related public health issues, it is imperative to establish prudently designed and effectually devised practical interventions; for discouraging cigarette smokers and providing maximum protection to children, pregnant women, elders and other non-smoking adults by entrenching a number of the below mentioned tobacco controlling key initiatives: 5.1 Establish a Highly Informative Setting A highly informative environment can be established by effectively conveying the most updated and evidence-based tobacco related public health information to the general population and specifically highlighting all the associated risk factors. The local governments must exhibit maximum commitment towards smoking cessation campaigns by formulating effective regulatory framework and providing suitable means to the healthcare professionals to implement it (Scott and Mazhindu 2005). Highly developed countries and the international health organisations must also facilitate the poor countries by financing the research projects to evaluate causes, consequences and costs of tobacco use in the respective regions and thereby, devise a preventive strategy accordingly. 5.2 Media Campaigning Media is the most constructive tool to speedily communicate with the masses therefore, it is imperative to utilise both print and electronic media for positive campaigning and specifically rope-in the e-media to target todays internet savvy, younger generation. In the wide-ranging interest of public health, it is the social responsibility of media world to completely prohibit the enticing cigarette advertisements and instead make noble use of the media by broadcasting regular public service messages to discourage the prevailing smoking behaviours. 5.3 Stringent Policies to Reduce Tobacco Consumption Substantial increase in tobacco prices can significantly reduce its consumption especially amongst younger generation or those that are unable to afford. Governments must also concentrate on formulating such policies that can completely forbid the promotional campaigns and considerably restrict the sales through vending machines (DoH 2007). Since smoking is one of the most prevailing global epidemics therefore; strict rules and regulations shall be imposed to discourage smoking in public places as for example bus stops, restaurants, educational institutions, offices, hospitals and cinemas etc. This would not only limit its consumption but will also signify the governments seriousness towards addressing the underlying public health issues. Moreover, the tobacco industry shall be consistently introduced to consistent and rigorous tax networks so that the target of promoting controlled use of cigarette smoking can be achieved (DoH 2007). On the other hand, governments can attain dual be nefits by expanding the tax network for the tobacco industry thus reducing its consumption amongst general populace and can generate more taxed revenue. 5.4 Discouraging Nicotine Dependency Regular smokers become heavily reliant upon nicotine intake and therefore, seek for certain other alternatives as a substitute to cigarettes including chewable tobacco, tablets, patches and inhalers, if their accessibility to cigarette smoking has been disrupted. The governments while designing smoking related preventive strategies must acknowledge that nicotine is highly addictive and therefore, it is wise to introduce less-harmful and inexpensive alternatives to regular cigarettes and subsequently educate them to overcome their nicotine dependency by adopting practical interventions through professional medical assistance (Prabhat, Chaloupka, Corrao and Binu 2006). Moreover, the developed countries and international health organisations can also donates such inexpensive nicotine alternatives to poor and deprived countries in order to promote smoking cessation and healthy living across the globe. 5.5 Support Groups Nicotine dependency significantly damages the internal health of people which restricts them to participate in healthy sports activities. Governments can help the local bodies to establish tobacco control support groups in their respective neighbourhoods and to organise healthy activities and events to promote constructive attitude amongst general population. A strategically designed tobacco control program also facilitates in mobilising the civil society to effectively contribute both their money and time to engage nicotine dependent people in healthy activities (Prabhat, Chaloupka, Corrao and Binu 2006) and thereby, motivating them to overcome their cigarette smoking habitude. Formation of such support groups provide easy and consistent access of tobacco-specific valuable information to the smokers and also enhance their awareness to the associated risk factors. CONCLUSION Smoking has been established as a consistently prevailing global epidemic and that is so, because the related effects of smoking are not restricted to the smoker himself, but also extend to others through a range of risk factors including passive smoking and air pollution etc. which makes it a substantial risk to public health. Provided the fact, it is not only essential to discourage smoking behaviour in smokers but also educate the non-smokers to protect themselves from the associated health risks. Apart from individual preventive measures, there is a growing need for integrating practical interventions to ensure reduced exposure to tobacco smoke especially in public places by providing separate smoking and non-smoking areas or installing ventilation or completely banning smoking through industry led voluntary agreements or by introducing stringent statutory requirements. To conclude, cigarette smoking is radically injurious to public health and honest efforts are required at both individual and communal level to enhance public awareness towards the associated risks and particularly support the smokers to quit their smoking habit. Smoking as a Public Health Issue Smoking as a Public Health Issue It is now a matter of common public acceptance that smoking causes ill health. This statement can be backed up by huge amounts of authoritative literature (Dobson et al 1999) (Smoking Kills 1998) (Choosing Health 2001) The subject of this essay however, is whether or not it is a Public Health issue. We will argue strongly that it is and produce evidence to support this stance. The Wanless Report (2002 ) defines Public Health as Ã¢â¬Å"The science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through organised efforts and informed choices of society, organisations Ã¢â¬â public and private, communities and individualsÃ¢â¬ On that basis we would suggest that the argument is already made since there is little doubt that smoking Ã¢â¬â both active and passive Ã¢â¬â will shorten life and cause disease. The evidence to support this statement comes from papers such as that by Prescott ( et al. 1998) who carried out a huge study looking into the effects of primary smoking and the risk of myocardial ischaemia in the general population. The results of the study were absolutely unequivocal with a finding of an increased risk of myocardial infarction in women of 2.24 and in men of 1.43. the reasons for the sex difference are several including genetic factors (Bennett 2004) and hormonal factors (Chapman 1999) To take a step further back, we have to define Health An authoritative definition of Health comes from the WHO who currently tell us that health is Ã¢â¬Å"a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. ( WHO 1992). A difficulty with this definition is that today many people confuse the attainment of happiness with the attainment of health (Kemm 2001). Ironically, in the context of this essay, Freud also offered us an observation on the definition of Health when he observed that most people equated well-being with happiness rather than health (Freud 1975) and he amplified this by observing that he had been advised by his doctors to give up cigars in order to improve his health. He commented that he was far more healthy but much less happy (Saracci 1997). Although FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s comment was clearly flippant, it does exemplify a deeper truth, that part of the problem with smoking is the pleasure that some people derive from it. One can always advance the argument that in a free society one should always have freedom of choice to damage yourself if you wish. (Hegel 1971) That is clearly the case, but in adopting that view you must also accept two further consequences of that position. One is that society is expected to pick up the bill when you are ill (via the NHS) and that by smoking, you may not only damage yourself but you may well damage others through the medium of passive smoking. (Kuhse Singer 2001) It is these latter points which actually make the issue one of Public Health. The Public (in general terms) are expected to fund the necessary treatment when you become ill. This is not an isolated incident as over 200,000 patients are diagnosed annually with some form of smoking related malignancy and over 120,000 will die from the disease. This is quite independent of those that develop other complications of smoke-related illness. (NHS Cancer Plan 2000). If you add to this number, the carers and the other economic costs to the community, the argument that it is not a Public Health issue clearly fails. We have raised the issue of passive smoking as one of the criteria for suggesting that smoking is an issue of public health. The evidence for this is rapidly accumulating. We can point to the cleverly designed study by He (et al.2004) whichÃ was able to point to the statistical differences in illness rates between those industrial workers who had a constantly smoky atmosphere to breathe and those who were able to avoid it. There is little doubt that choosing to smoke where others will inhale the smoke is a demonstrably anti social behaviour. As if to underline our view, we can point to the fact that the Government takes a similar view as it has produced a series of Government White Papers (Choosing Health 2004) (Building on the Best 2003) and regulations (Saving lives 1999) which are all aimed at improving the health of the nation by reducing its collective exposure to cigarette smoke References Bennett Gottleib 2004 Passive smoking more risky for women with a missing gene. BMJ: 2004 Vol 26 320-322 Building on the best 2003 Department of Health: HMSO. 09/12/2003 Chapman S 1999 Smoking and Women: beauty before age? BMJ, Mar 1999; 318: 818. Choosing Health 2004 Government White Paper consultation on improving peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s health 28.6.04 BMJ, Dec 2004; 319: 1522. Dobson et al, 1999; National Centre for Social Research, RCP, 1999; Freud S. 1975 Letter to Lou Andreas-Salome, 1930 May 8. Cited in: Sigmund Freud house catalogue. Vienna: LÃ ¶cker and WÃ ¶genstein, 1975: 49. He, T H Lam, L S Li, L S Li, R Y Du, G L Jia, J Y Huang, and J S Zheng2004 Passive smoking at work as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in Chinese women who have never smoked BMJ, Feb 2004; 308: 380 384. Hegel GW. 1971 Philosophy of Mind: Being Part Three of the Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences (1830). Wallace W, trans. Oxford: Clarendon Press; 1971. Kemm 2001 The pursuit of happiness Cancer Nurs. 2000;23(1):20Ã¢â¬â31 Kuhse Singer 2001 A companion to bioethics ISBN: 063123019X Pub Date 05 July 2001 NHS Cancer plan 2000 A plan for investment, a plan for reform Department of Health. HMSO. 27/09/2000 Prescott, Merit Hippie, Peter Schooner, Hans Ole Hein, and JÃ ¸rgen Vestbo 1998 Smoking and risk of myocardial infarction in women and men: longitudinal population study BMJ, Apr 1998; 316: 1043 Ã¢â¬â 1047 Saracci R 1997 The world health organisation needs to reconsider its definition of health BMJ, May 1997; 314: 1409. Smoking Kills1998 A White Paper HMSO: December 1998 Wanless report: HMSO 2002 World Health Organisation. 1996 Ethics and health, and quality in health careÃ¢â¬âreport by the director general. Geneva: WHO, 1996. (Document No. EB 97/16.) PDG 20.8.05 Word count 1,192
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Philosophy of Education My philosophy of education would include a classroom that supports creativity and gives students an opportunity to explore the world in the confines of four walls. Knowledge results from countless experiences and interactions throughout an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s lifetime. I believe the purpose of education is to allow students to discover who they are through exploring who has come before them, and what is possible for them in the future. Formal education should provide students with more than a foundation in basic disciplines. It should develop skills that will facilitate living and working in an ever-changing world; one filled with diversity. As a teacher, I would hope to illustrate to my students how vital each and every one of them is to the world as a whole. My classroom would be bright and colorful. Examples of studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ work would be displayed. The environment will be student centered. The desks would be arranged in a circle for class discussions, and be moved into separate stations for cooperative work. Computers would be stationed around the classroom and used frequently. Discovery based learning would be a major factor considered in the design of my classroom. Students will have the choice of using various resources and materials to suit their preferred style of learning. Some of us are listeners, readers, or just may simply need to get our hands dirty. An effective classroom teacher would be able to cater to all of these academic...
Sunday, November 10, 2019
During the Vietnam War, American soldiers and officials used illegal drugs such as marijuana, heroin and opium to release stress from war and to kill the pain of an injury. The uses of narcotics were not strictly monitored and were sold at low prices increasing the amount of usage. The use of illicit drugs may have also resulted in some sexual assaults that led to children with mixed nationalities. Before the Americans came into Vietnam, drug laws were not well determined and people did not use dope as much. However, soon after the Vietnam War started, most soldiers and citizens dramatically started using narcotics, mostly marijuana. Marijuana was available all over the country and this type of drug was a convenient crop to produce although it was an illegal act. Marijuana usage in Vietnam was far more widespread than it was in the United States and was cheap since it does not have to be imported from a foreign country. However, the South Vietnamese Government tried to tighten its policies so that it will be harder to obtain. In about 1970, the North and South Vietnam militaries pressured the soldiers to reduce the use of marijuana. This led to soldiers smuggling narcotics and wanting a refined kind of drug that could not be noticed easily. When heroin was first introduced, people hid it in their cigarettes and consumed by smoking. This highly addictive drug became very popular in Vietnam and was consumed a lot. Statistics and army records show that about 50% of the soldiers and officials had used either heroin or opium during the war.
Friday, November 8, 2019
7th Grade Science Fair Projects Seventh grade and middle school, in general, are a big time for science fairs because its a wonderful educational level for students to come up with ideas to explore using the scientific method and ways to investigate their questions. Parents and teachers still provide direction, especially helping students devise manageable experiments and appropriate work technology to present their results. However, the actual experiment should be done by the 7th grader. The student should record data and analyze it to determine whether or not the hypothesis is supported. Here are some ideas appropriate for the 7th-grade level. 7th Grade Science Project Ideas and Questions Use a prism to show the spectrum of visible light on a sheet of paper. Mark the endpoints, which is how far into infrared and ultraviolet you can see. Compare your visual range with that of other family members or other students. Is there a difference in range between genders? Do family members have a similar range? See if you can draw any conclusions Ã¢â¬â¹using the scientific method.Composting is a great way to reduce waste and recycle nutrients, yet some household products and foods are contaminated with heavy metals and organic chemicals. Devise a test to measure one of these chemicals and compare the concentration in compost versus that in the ordinary soil in your yard.Houseplants can absorb and detoxify indoor pollution. Do research to identify which houseplants are best at cleaning the air in a home, office, or classroom. Now, take the project to the next level and determine which plants are most practical, affordable, and useful. Make a chart of the chemicals the plants cl ean, whether the plants are toxic to children and pets, whether they can live in low-light conditions or require bright light or special care, how much the plants costs, and whether they are readily available. Which brand of ibuprofen (or the student could test another type of pain reliever) dissolves the most quickly?Does the pH of juice change over time?Insects can sense light and dark. Can they still see light if its only red or blue, etc.?How well does a football helmet really protect against impact? You could use a skating helmet or any other protective gear, depending on what you have available.How does the concentration of chlorine in water affect the rate or percentage of seed germination?What is the effect of watering schedules on the germination (or growth rate) of seeds from a certain plant?How does the presence of a given medication in water affect the survivability of Daphnia?Does the presence of de-icer salt affect the movement behavior of earthworms?Does the bounciness of a golf ball relate to its ability to be hit long-distance?Does the species wood affect the rate at which it burns? Its heat output?Does the mass of a baseball bat relate to the distance the baseball travels ? Is the paper towel brand that absorbs the most water the same as the brand that absorbs the most oil?
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
A Little Fox Never Hurt Anyone A Little Fox Never Hurt Anyone A Little Fox Never Hurt Anyone By Kate Evans We all know that good looking women are described as foxy. But foxes, with their rusty color and reputation for craftiness, can be used in many other colorful, unique, and descriptive expressions. For example, A foxs sleep is when one feigns indifference while keeping a close eye on someone. A wise fox will never rob his neighbors hen-roost, meaning a thief should steal from people far from home so as not to get caught. Theres my personal favorite, I gave him a flap with a fox-tail, which means that I made a fool of someone. To set a fox to keep the geese would be someone who trusts those who should clearly not be trusted with important tasks. If its a case of the fox and the grapes, then someone really wants something, cant obtain it, so they pretend they never wanted it in the first place. And of course, theres the often relevant when a fox preaches, take care of your geese. So, go off and flap someone with a fox-tail or just try and work one of these expressions into your next short story! Apollo Theater, Ms. Brown had the limo pull to a stop before a 100-foot-long Chyna Doll billboard, featuring a very foxy Foxy, clad only in a blue feather bikini. (www.nytimes.com) Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:45 Synonyms for Ã¢â¬Å"FoodÃ¢â¬ Awoken or Awakened?Ulterior and Alterior
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Starbucks in China - Coursework Example How this coffee shop at the neighborhood did invade and changed the lifestyle of many It is a sort of colonization. I call it Starbuckzation. Starbucks has been around since 1971. According to Starbucks Coffee Company (2007) history, it started by selling roasted coffee beans in Seattle's Pike Place Market bearing the name of Starbucks Coffee, Tea and Spices. It was in 1981 when this coffee shop caught the attention of plastics salesman Howard Schultz (Wilson, 2005); Schultz is now the Chairman of Starbucks Coffee Company. But it was never easy for him to turn the business into an international giant that it is now. In 1982, Schultz was hired as Starbucks' head of marketing; shortly thereafter he was sent to Italy for an international house ware show It is where he got the idea of turning Starbucks into an espresso bar (Wilson, 2005). But things did not immediately come his way. The opportunity came in 1987 when Starbucks was up for sale; Schultz was able to raise the money, remade the establishment, and started history in the coffee industry. Today, Starbucks has 6,281 company-operated stores and 3,533 licensed stores in 50 states of US plus the District of Colombia It has also established coffee houses in 39 countries outside US (Starbucks, 2007). It is not quite surprising though that Starbucks is a success in the United States of America since a cupful of steaming coffee has almost become a necessity to every American. What is more amazing is its success in Asia particularly in China that can be considered, by far, as Starbucks' largest market outside North America. Traditionally, Chinese are fond with tea, which they say has healthy benefits. How come that a tea-drinking country could easily shift to coffee Starbucks started its operation in China in the late '90s. The company began with a store in Taiwan in March 1998, spread in Mainland China at the China World Trade Building in Beijing in January 1999, then in Hong Kong in May 2000, and Macau in August 2002; to date, there are almost 500 stores all over China (Starbucks China, 2007). Has China really fell under Starbuckzation It could be so. However, Starbucks' phenomenal success in China has not been copied in Australia. Since its first store was established at Sydney's CBD in July 2000, Starbucks has set-up only 50 stores in Sydney, Brisbane, the Gold Coast, the Sunshine Coast, Canberra, and Melbourne today (Starbucks Australia, 2007). It could be attributed to a number of cafes in Australia. Geographical and social settings also contribute to this aspect. 1. Efficiency Among the keys to attain success in any field is efficiency. In Starbucks' case, it is the coffee house's capability to deliver the goods regardless of its customers' race or creed. There is a cup of flavorful coffee that will suit the discriminating taste buds of everyone. It has a blend from various regions; coffees are blended depending on the flavors that characterize a certain country. There is Colombia Nario Supremo, Guatemala Antiqua, Arabian Mocha Sanani, Komodo Dragon Blend, and Sumatra, to name a few. Apart from coffee, Starbucks also offer tasty cakes and pastries. There is also a variety of
Friday, November 1, 2019
Analyse the component of a web-marketing strategy and explain how the HRBP can add value to the marketing department - Assignment Example The purpose of this paper is to analyze web marketing and how the human resource business partner (HRBP) position can add value to the marketing department. Internet marketing is a new brand of marketing that was born in the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s. During that decade the business world was taken by storm as new dot com companies began to appear by the hundreds each day. At the end of the decade the infamous internet bubble burst as too many companies penetrated the marketplace at once with less than innovative ideas. The business world has changed and web marketing has become a critical success factor in the 21st century. The amount of e-commerce volume has increased a lot. The US e-commerce marketplace reached $153 billion in sales in 2010 (Plunkett Research, 2011). Due to the size of the market companies have to look for ways to improve their web marketing function in order to increase their overall volumes of sales. There are advantages and cons associated with the use of web marketing. On e of the greatest features of web marketing is the ability to increase the customer base of a company. Through the power of the internet web marketing in theory has the capability of reaching 100% of the global population once the world becomes fully online. Another advantage of the implementation of web marketing is cost. Web marketing campaigns are much cheaper than the use of traditional media. It can cost thousands or even millions of dollars to run a 30 second advertisement on television. In 2010 CBS charged between $2.5 million to $2.8 million for a 30 second ad during the Super Bowl (Cbsnews, 2010). A third advantage of the use of web marketing is that a campaign can be implemented very fast. Also web marketing can be beneficial because the advertiser can customized the ads based on the target audience. Despite all the benefits associated with web marketing there are also cons. The use of marketing advertising techniques such as email advertising or pop up ads can be perceive d by the general population as spam. Spam can be defined as unsolicited email often of a commercial nature that are sent indiscriminately to multiple mailing lists, individuals, or newsgroups (Answers, 2011). Another con of the use of web marketing campaigns is that at times it can be difficult to measure the results of a web marketing initiative. A third disadvantage of web marketing is that people can become skeptical about the trustworthiness of the deals offered in the internet due to the large amount of internet scams that have occurred in the past (Tun, 2009). The HRBP position can add a lot of value to the marketing department. Most marketing departments are limited by the internal capabilities and resources within a company. A firm could accomplish more if it joined forces with other marketing teams. The HRBP can help a company by negotiating strategic alliances with other firms. A strategic alliance can be defined as an arrangement between two or more companies that decided to share resources for a particular project (Answers, 2011). The use of strategic alliances is a market entry strategy that can enable firms to penetrate foreign locations. The marketing depar