Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Collapse of Lehman Brothers Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Collapse of Lehman Brothers - Term Paper Example The company was experiencing a mass exit by clients, dramatic fall in stock value and asset devaluation. Their bid for bankruptcy protection was the largest in the world history. Corporate Malfeasance Corporate malfeasance is a legal concept that denotes the art of falsely manipulating accounts such that the financial position of a company appears stable and progressive. Following their collapse, top executives of former corporate giants, such as WorldCom, Enron and AIG, faced civil suits and criminal charges with allegations of corporate malfeasance. Corporate malfeasance was one of the leading causes for the collapse of Lehman in light of the financial crisis of the late 2000. James Cramer calls the Lehman’s malfeasance case ‘financial engineering’ (Cramer 2). He believes that with the knowledge of top officials, CFOs and CEO Dick Fuld, the accounting department manipulated the financial records in a bid to make the company appear more venerable to attract inves tors and retain clients. Lehman’s financial engineering had gone on for a few years amid growing worries among top officials that the company was over-leveraged. The advice of chief financial officers and other top officials spearheaded the ‘financial engineering’ gimmick through counterfeit records to hide Lehman’s vulnerability to collapse (Taibbi 98). Sources retrieved from the Wall Street Journal indicate that CEO Fuld was aware of the imminent collapse. He was manipulated by a clique of shadowy bankers and top investors who wanted to be overnight billionaires by urging him to make money-losing decisions. Corporate malfeasance did not go far. The truth eventually emerged and Lehman’s estimated $619 billion debt was exposed. This was after the audit report of a court-appointed financial examiner was released. Fuld had admitted in writing that he had commissioned the financial engineering gimmick as a systematic ploy of buying the company more tim e. This was by creating â€Å"a materially misleading picture of the firm’s financial condition in late 2007 to 2008† (Cramer 2). Lehman’s accounting gimmick dubbed ‘repo 105’ allowed the sale of company securities through a signed obligation to re-purchase them after a while so that they can do so at a lower price. This would temporarily remove such asset securities from the balance sheet. Likewise, the untimely sale of securities allowed the influx of liquid cash into the bank thus effectively lowering financial coverage ratios. These subtle and corrupt financial gimmicks were done behind closed doors keeping investors and other stakeholders in the oblivion (Sorkin 8). The US Housing/ Subprime Mortgage Crisis Economic experts link Lehman’s predicament to the bursting the housing or real estate market bubble in the U.S in the summer of 2008. The untimely subprime mortgage crisis was another leading cause for the collapse of Lehman Brothers I nc. In 2007, the real estate market in the U.S had registered a remarkable progress amid the housing bubble. Housing prices soared, reached the elastic limit and Wall Street began to experience a huge increase in home foreclosure rates and equally high subprime mortgage delinquencies. Subsequently, securities backed by mortgages declined significantly. The steep decline made re-financing very difficult.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Brave New World and Ethics Essay Example for Free

Brave New World and Ethics Essay Barely peeking over the horizon the barren landscape sparkled as rays of light pierced the darkness driving away the aches and pain from their tired bodies. Straining his eyes he saw the river glowing far in the distance looking so harmless in daylight. Shuddering softly the dark churning waters of the previous night haunted him as he look at the serene form of his wife as she lay in fitful slumber. Turning around he allowed himself one last chance to partake in sweet memories of friends, family, his country, all left behind. As his wife stirred he turned around. He never looked back. Forward they walked towards opportunities untold. Forward they walk towards a new beginning. Forward they walked in America, home of the free. For centuries humans have forsaken the comforts of their current situations in search of a better existence for themselves and their families. From migrating thousands of miles to overthrowing governments humans have a knack for defying the odds successfully in pursuit of their morals and values. Descendant from a primitive apelike people, humans developed over thousands of years morphing into a super species where science is exalted in the quest to dominate nature. In the modern era, scientific and technological advancement are idolized as successes in these fields test the limits of our imaginations. With recent discoveries in genetics and the decoding of the human genome, scientists and politicians today work tirelessly towards complete control of the human body, plants, animals with dazzling results and further successes projected even up to the creation of synthetic life. However, many lines of research have sparked considerable controversy as society moves into an age of untold possibilities. The book Brave New World by Aldous Huxely portrays a futuristic society where humans have been molded into a cast system through chemical mutations, mind altering drugs, and psychological conditioning. With all classic philosophy, literature, and history destroyed as relics of the past, society stands static without any knowledge of a societal reality more primitive or advanced than the status quo. Despite current societal movement towards genetic modification and enhancement, the censorship and elimination of creative perspective present in Huxely’s utopia contradict the individualism and sense of self gave driving society forward. Modern society will never mirror Huxely’s utopia do to the innate spirituality and drive for growth that characterizes human nature. Brave New World depicts a society where humans control their bodies and environment through chemical treatments. Although scientifically impossible, this basic premise of environmental control becomes a reality when utilizing the principles of modern genomics. Over the last two decades scientists have gradually decoded every gene and strand of DNA that allows the human body to function. The gravity of this feat is insurmountable opening the door to limitless possibilities. But despite identifying several the causes of several common polygenic disorders (disorders in which several gene are implicated) and identifying the genes responsible for several Mendelian disorders, the promise of Gene therapy has â€Å"proved nothing but a pipe dream†(Kass). Beyond the elimination of disease, genetically enhanced and altered crops have increased in popularity. Several strains of crops such as cotton, corn, and soybeans have been enhanced with artificial genes that produce insecticides or resistance to herbicides. Furthermore, scientists are attempting to genetically modify plants, insects, and bacteria. Geneticists hope that in the near future genetically engineered plants will have the ability to feed on toxic pollutants. And certain bacteria have already been altered to produce chemicals valuable in manufacturing such as adipic acid, one of the ingredients in nylon, and teraphthalic acid, a component of a specialist polyester (Kass). With the possibilities of producing indestructible crops, plants that eliminate pollutants, and genetically modified fauna to produce chemicals, the economic stability and general prosperity depicted in Brave New World may become a reality in years to come. Furthermore, Huxley’s utopia presented a society where being a mother or father was considered vile and disgusting. Children were manufactured in â€Å"Hatchery And Conditioning Centers† where embryos were designed and enhanced with a complex cocktail of chemical additives in a manufacturing process. Currently modern technology has not developed a method of substituting natural birth conditions and genetically altering an embryo is close to impossible (Kass). But the prospect of genetically modified embryos dubbed â€Å"Designer Babies† lurks in the future. When these techniques develop society will possess the capabilities of genetically determining the capabilities of newborns despite whether artificial birth exists. From an ideological view, the extreme dehumanization in Brave New World may seem difficult to comprehend, but as generation builds on generation, the evolution of cultural practices and values inches society closer a similar state. As science allows society to conquer infertility or improve the genetic makeup of a child, birth moves one step closer to a manufacturing process (Carr). Even when moving beyond the technological transformations, the dominant explanation of organic life is the theory of evolution which directly undermines the value of human life (Carr). Rather than beings with spirits and a divine purpose, society diminishes mankind to nothing more than a meaningless collection of cells whose purpose is reproduction. Regardless of the technological and ideological influences that create a level of symmetry with Huxely’s utopia, our society can never reach the extremes presented in Brave New World because the core cultural values depicted directly contradict those our society ascribe to. Benjamin Franklin once said, â€Å"Without continual growth and progress, such words as improvement, achievement, and success have no meaning†. Brave New World depicted such a society where those not in a drug induced coma or suffering from purposeful cognitive damage were confined to a bland meaningless existence. Our society today is designed to award the innovative and talented as all struggle to achieve individual success. Emphasizing individual growth and achievement, our society will never sit static and unchanged as the world depicted in Huxely’s work.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Lucifer in Starlight by George Meredith :: Lucifer in Starlight George Meredith

Lucifer in Starlight by George Meredith Examining a poem in detail can bring out new meanings and ideas. By careful analysis, the full beauty of the poem can be appreciated. The poem "Lucifer in Starlight (p. 959)", by George Meredith, can be analyzed to refine the authors purpose, by examining every subtle hint, every possibility, for a deeper theme. Also, "deciphering" formal literary techniques such as metaphor, connotation, and symbolism is the key to unlock other expressions. The main theme of the poem is that Lucifer has no place out of his hell, and anything he tries to reenter heaven is futile. As with any poem, it is best to first examine how the title, "Lucifer in Starlight" relates to the body of the poem. Obviously, Lucifer is the defiant angel that was banished from heaven, and sent to the underworld of hell, where he known as Satan. The title refers to the devil as "in starlight", so this means he has to rise to a place where the stars are visible, not the fires of hell. This rising from the underworld is summed up in the first line. It is later explained that he is doing so because he is tired of his 'dark dominion." Ironically, the first line refers to Lucifer honorably, as a "Prince", while in the second line he is tagged as a fiend. This leaves the reader feeling perplexed, yet still thinking of Lucifer as the enemy. At first it may seem as Lucifer has risen to the Earth, but it is further clarified that he has elevated himself above the "rolling ball". However, god imagined the world as planar, with heaven on a higher plane, and hell on a lower plane, not spherical as defined here. From his place in the stars above earth, Lucifer looks down through the clouds, a nd observes the sinners. He is talking about the denizens of the earth, for since Adam sinned in the beginning, all of his sons and daughters are also sinners. Perhaps he can relate to them, as he is also trying for entrance to heaven. For now , he sets his mind on the people who will become denizens of his hell eventually. Here Meredith shows how much hubris the devil really has, for the reader can just see Lucifer savoring over the masses entering his vile domain. Then, Lucifer peers at the most extreme places in the world, describing the sands of Africa.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Is IAS12 too difficult to apply and understand? Essay

International Accounting Standards 12 continues to receive numerous criticisms on applicability and usefulness of numbers in accounting for corporate income taxes. The argument presented is that the standards set by IAS 12 are too hard to apply or even understand. In the plight of these criticisms, two accounting standards boards, UK’s (ASB) and Germany’s (GASB) opted to conduct a proactive project plan aimed at fundamentally reviewing the standards set by IAS 12 prove hard to solve through piecemeal amendment. Their main agenda was to look at critical issues of accounting for corporate income in an attempt to develop a discussion paper on the principles of IAS 12 and set out proposals. IAS 12 prohibits companies to give an account to deferred taxes by using the deferral method based on the income statement. It instead prefers the passive methodology based on the balance sheet. In addition to the above requirement, the standard requires corporations to acknowledge eithe r a deferral tax liability. Thirdly, IAS 12 requires recognition of deferred tax assets when it is certain that a corporation possess revenues in future to realize deferred tax asset. For instance, given that a company has a history of losses it will recognize deferred tax assets to the extent that taxable temporary expenses in amounts are sufficient. â€Å"Fourthly, IAS 12 does not allow asset credit and delayed tax liabilities brought about by types of material goods and liabilities whose books vary in amounts at the moment of acknowledgment† (IAS – 12). The other requirement is that IAS 12 prohibits recognition of deferred tax liabilities, and those liabilities encountered or arising from adjustments for conversion so long as it satisfies two conditions: * The main investor is capable of controlling the timing of reversal’s temporary difference. * It is certain that impermanent variation may become irreversible in the near future. Therefore, it is a requirement of the company to disclose information concerning cumulative amount of temporary variation involved. Further, IAS 12 recommends explicitly to adjustments to a fair value of assets and liabilities arising from a dual business combination. It however prohibits recognition of deferred tax liabilities because of initial recognition of good will. During revaluation of assets, IAS 12 allows and requires a corporation to recognize deferred tax liabilities in case revaluation of asset takes place. Moreover, IAS 12 requires that valuation of assets and deferred tax liabilities based on tax consequences that may arise in a manner that a company expects to recover the amount. â€Å"The standard also prohibits the deduction of deferred tax assets and liabilities to account for its current value† (Kirk, 2005). The IAS 12 further prohibits companies from making distinctions between the current and non-current assets and liabilities in its financial reports. It also provides restrictive conditions on debit and credit balances that represent deferred tax assets that could be compensated. This requirement is based on the requirements as stipulated by the financial assets and liabilities IAS 32, financial instruments disclosure and presentation. It is worth noting that among the new information IAS 12 requires disclosure include: * That for every class of impermanent disparity; * The amounts of assets and tax liabilities recognized and the amount of expenses or income labeled in the income statement with respect to discontinued operations, the realization of deferred tax asset depends on future prospects over the profits coming from reversals of existing impermanent parities. There has been a rise in criticism on financial reporting for income taxes from users and preparers. The criticism is based on the implication of the current and future effects it will have on cash flows. In their arguments, the users cite accounting requirements as too complex to apply in working out income tax. â€Å"In addition, the principles underlying IAS 12 standard exhibit numerous exemptions that finally compromise on its principles and requirements. Some users also argue against the notion that the principles underlying IAS 12 is flawed† (JORGE, 2008). However, they believe that the principles of IAS 12 are good but face a number of limitations arising from different a nd complex jurisdictions governing the various taxes in different parts of the world. â€Å"Due to these and other complexities, surrounding the applicability of IAS 12, there is a need to examine in reality the requirements of the principle is hard to apply in financial accounting and reporting† (Gupta, 2005). First, there is a need to examine significant improvements that can be incorporated to allow flexibility in application due to incompatibility with the various jurisdictions. To understand issues surrounding IAS 12, there is a need to understand problems cited as a limitation to its application. It is important to note that users and preparers believe that the requirements in IAS12 are unsatisfactory in certain aspects. In addition, users of financial reports do not find information courtesy of IAS 12 useful. In fact, complexity of taxes within corporations makes it quite difficult to assess its impact and prescribes suitable management strategies. As a result, clear and transparent information that is not adequately provided by IAS 12 prepared financial statements. â€Å"The standard seems to concentrate on extensive disclosures focusing on accounting technicalities relating to temporary differences rather than on aspects of real concern, for instance, current and future tax cash flows† (Greuning, 2011). The requirements provided by IAS 12 appear too difficult to apply in practice since they are unclear. Its relevance and understandability of information provided by the standard according to preparers is questionable. In the plight of these limitations, IAS 12 has proved hard to apply and understand and therefore a number of issues need to be addressed to make it better. Several strategies can be incorporated to address the limitations in the IAS12. * Amendments â€Å"Some amendments can be adopted to fix the limitations present in IAS 12 standard† (Everingham & Kana, 2008). These would address particular issues such as the current unsatisfactory requirements and disclosures provided in financial reports prepared under IAS 12. This strategy will protect the main principles of IAS 12. * Develop a new accounting standard- This is on different principles from the present IAS 12 standard. It is vital to note that developing an entirely different approach to accounting pose a considerable challenge. This is because developing a new approach that matches the standards of IAS 12 can take time but limited amendments can save credible amount of time and result in less disruptive time for change and complete replacement. The main question that users should ask to concern IAS 12 is whether the limitations should be addressed through limited amendments or by simply developing an entirely new standard that is based on different principles away from that which is addressed by IAS 12. In view of these strategies, some preparers disagree with the proposed changes. â€Å"This is because they believe that the limitations contemplated in the IAS 12 were not as serious to justify the expenses and efforts† (Delaney, 1985). Some amendments need change for instance; the current IAS 12 brings confusion in the relationships between the tax paid and current tax expense as reported in the income expense. In order to address the inefficiencies, the following questions need answers: * Should there be additional disclosures in IAS 12? Moreover, will these disclosures help in solving the misunderstanding between the taxes paid and current tax expenses? * â€Å"Should strategies on tax accommodate user information needs?†(Choi, 2001) * If a new standard different to IAS 12 was to be adopted in preference to amending it, will the new system deliver up to the expectation of income tax determination? Will the new approaches pose a challenge when it comes to implementation? It is important to note that, the use of IAS 12 is a complex affair since the users have limited knowledge on the limitations and intrigues surrounding its use on tax issues and end up struggling using the information as it is without caution and end up messing. Moreover, dealing with the challenges is not a straightforward venture. Uncertainty of taxes in financial statements is of utmost interest to users and is therefore more interested on how to reflect tax risks in financial reporting. In addition, IAS 12 neither provides explicit guidance nor gives specific disclosures on accounting for uncertain tax positions. â€Å"It only gives provisions that current tax liabilities at the amount expected to be paid tax authorities using the tax laws enacted at the balance sheet date on rates specified for different nations. This implies that the amount recognition is based on estimates owed or realized† (Balthazar, 2011). Conclusion In conclusion, IAS 12 has numerous loopholes that should not be ignored. This is because it creates a large gap between the requirements as suggested by IAS 12 standard as compared to what is needed by users for purposes of predicting future tax cash flows. These user needs may not be met through additional disclosures in financial statements rather other parts of company report may be used to provide a secure location for that kind of information. References: BALTAZAR, E. (2011). International GAAP 2012 Generally Accepted Accounting Practice under International Financial Reporting Standards. Chichester, West Sussex, U.K., John Wiley & Sons. CHOI, F. D. S., MEEK, G., & FROST, C. A. (2001). International accounting. Upper Saddle River, N.J., Prentice Hall. DELANEY, P. R. (1985). GAAP. New York, J. Wiley & Sons. EVERINGHAM, G. K., & KANA, S. P. (2008). Corporate reporting. Sunninghill, PricewaterhouseCoopers. GREUNING, H. V., SCOTT, D., & TERBLANCHE, S. (2011). International financial reporting standards: a practical guide. Washington, D.C., World Bank. GUPTA, K. (2005). Contemporary auditing. New Delhi, Tata McGraw-Hill. â€Å"IAS – 12 – World GAAP Info.† Web. 17 Feb. 2013 . INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS COMMITTEE. (2000). Revisions to international accounting standards: IAS 12, Income Taxes; IAS 19, Employee Benefits; IAS 39, Financial Instruments: recognition and measurement and other related standards. JORGE FAUSTINO, S. M. (2008). Implementing reforms in public sector accounting. Coimbra [Portugal], Università © de Coimbra. KIRK, R. J. (2005). International financial reporting standards in depth. Volume 1, Theory and practice. Amsterdam, Elsevier/ Butterworth Heinemann/CIMA Pub. LAWRENCE, S. (1997). International accounting. London [u.a.], Internat. Thomson Business Press. NOBES, C., & PARKER, R. H. (2008). Comparative international accounting. Harlow, Essex, England, Prentice Hall/Financial Times. OPPERMANN, H. R. B. (2009). Accounting standards. Lansdowne, Juta. PADMAVATHI, C. (2005). Accounting standards: towards harmonization and convergence. Hyderabad, ICFAI University Press. PRICEWATERHOUSECOOPERS. (1998). International accounting standards: applying IAS 12, income taxes, in practice. [Londres], PricewaterhouseCoopers. POWER, M. (2007). Organized uncertainty: designing a world of risk management. Oxford [u.a.], Oxford Univ. Press. WIECEK, I. M., & YOUNG, N. M. (2010). IFRS primer: international GAAP basics. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons ZIMMERMANN, J., WERNER, J. R., & VOLMER, P. B. (2008). Global governance in accounting: rebalancing public power and private commitment. Basingstoke [England], Palgrave Macmillan. (2007). International accounting and reporting issues. New York, United Nations Publication (2008). Relationships with the state: proposed amendments to IAS 24 : comments to be received by 13 March 2009. London, U.K., International Accounting Standards Board. (2009). International Financial Reporting Standards IFRSs 2009

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Pollution Allowances Is A Market Based Economy Policy Accounting Essay

Pollution allowance is besides called as emanation rights. This construct is foremost introduced by John Davis in 1968 in the book â€Å" pollution, belongings and monetary value † ( Opschoor, Lohman and Vos, 1994 ) . It refers to the emitters in environmental protection supervising and disposal sections ‘ quota allotment, and in the premiss to guarantee that the rights do non damage the other public environmental rights, shall bask the right to the discharge of pollutants ( Gibson, 1996 ) . In 1968, when the American economic expert Davis foremost proposed this construct, its intension is the authorities as society ‘s representative and the proprietor of the environmental resources sells the right of emanation of pollutants to the highest bidders like securities ( Gibson, 1996 ) . Polluters can purchase this sort of right from the authorities, or from the defilers who have the emanation right. Polluters can besides purchase or reassign the ownership of emanation r ight. 1.2 characteristic of pollution allowances Pollution allowances is a market based economic system policy and economic stimulation method ( Gainesand, 1991 ) . It to the full exerts the market mechanism ‘s function in resource allotment. The features of pollution allowances are chiefly manifested in the undermentioned facets: First, a pollution allowance is an economic policy and economic stimulation method. The United Nations economic organisations and development liberty council in 1991 January proposed â€Å" proposal of utilizing economic agencies in environmental policy † and suggested members more extensively and steadfastly to follow economic steps, as other policies means complement or replacing ( Aggie, 1995 ) . This proposal put frontward four types of economic methods for mention: the first is the fees and a revenue enhancement, the 2nd is a tradable license ; the 3rd is sedimentation system ; the 4th is fiscal subsidies ( OECD, 1998 ) . From the proposal can see pollution allowance is a sort of economic methods to protect the environment. In 1992 The United Nations conference on environment and development passed the Rio declaration, the rule 16 points out â€Å" sing defilers shall bear the cost of pollution in rule point of view, national governments should do more attempts to advanc e the internalisation of environment cost and use of economic agencies, and proper attention of public involvement, and do non falsify international trade and investing. † The meeting passed the docket 21, in which chapter 8 stresses â€Å" need to do appropriate attempts, more efficient and more extended usage of economic agencies † ; â€Å" Governments should see roll uping agencies of economic system and the market mechanism to set up the effectual combination of economic agencies†¦ , direct control method and the voluntary agencies ( Lehman, 1996 ) . This symbolizes that pollution allowance is wholly different from other environmental economic policies. Second, pollution allowance is a market-based pollution control manner. U.S. federal legislative acts provides a sort of â€Å" market control † manner to utilize market mechanism to forestall pollution and waste decrease marks ( Milne, 1996 ) . The cost of pollution externalization frequently causes societal equity and low economic efficiency, the market control manner is through pollution cost allotment alteration to better efficiency and equity, its get downing point is to take the pollution cost as a cost of merchandise, instead than allow it ascribe to the society. The Clean Air Act 1990 in amendments proposed system of emanation trade is a sort of typical market-based pollution control manner ( OECD, 1993 ) . Now this form more altered to the development of market economic system, so besides progressively used by authoritiess. Third, pollution allowance is by supplying ways and means to better the efficiency of the cost of administration pollution, application signifiers of economic levers to mobilise the enthusiasm of pollutant discharging endeavors, in order to recognize the pollutants cuts for the intent. It is a sort of specific and runing theoretical account, non straight reflected in its environmental aims, but to accomplish aims and supply ways and agencies ( Cook, 2009 ) . Pollution-discharge right trade can utilize the entire sum control make policy execution conditions, give full drama to the flexible economic stimulation map, do up and rectify entire sum control itself low efficiency job because of â€Å" command – control † ( Lohamann, 2009 ) . Theoretical survey and pattern show that, compared with concentration control, entire sum control, particularly capacity sum control, is the effectual step to protect the environment capacity of resources.2. Accounting intervention of pollu tion allowances2.1 accounting intervention of pollution allowances As environmental direction alterations from concentration control to entire sum control, at nowadays for environmental pollution fee besides changes from originally pollutants exceeds charge to emanation charges. Chemical and papermaking industries paid blowdown will increase more 30 % – 80 % than the original, thermic power industry ‘s paid blowdown will better about 10 times ( Aggie, 1995 ) . For pollution emanation endeavors, environmental policy is an endeavor ‘s of import economic policy, implement a policy measures taken, and its related assets, liabilities, income and contemplation control is besides more and more by the authorities, the society and the endeavor concerned. At present in the endeavor accounting system still merely at direction disbursals ‘ item undertaking â€Å" pollution fees † check endeavors ‘ paid blowdown. This pattern defects are as follows, foremost, because the authorities is charged pollution fees harmonizing to à ¢â‚¬Å" who pollute pay the fees † rule, such charge policy can non efficaciously motivate endeavors to actively command pollution and cut down emanations, the whole society can non recognize the sustainable development ends ( Opschoor, Lohman and Vos, 1994 ) . Second, because the environment ‘s limited pollution suiting ability and the scarceness nature of pollutants dismissed power, enterprises existent pollution emanation right shall be reflected as the endeavor resources in accounting statements, should non be used as fees. Third, from tradable emanation in the universe, some endeavors already join the sub undertakings or specific countries of pollution-discharge right trade program, in the world of pollution-discharge right trade for its comparative slowdown of the accounting criterion, and hapless maneuverability, brings trouble to the endeavors to reflect and command trading affairs needfully, and impact the accounting information determination utility. 2.2 development of emanation trading Emission trading is a sort of method to pull off and command pollution, is based on the market. The execution of emanation right by and large is done by the environmental administrative sections under the selected restricted country or within sections, which design limited emanations and cap-and-trade plan, to give emitters ‘ quota ( Gainesand, 1991 ) . The competent sections harmonizing to the achieved decrease ends lessening quota twelvemonth by twelvemonth. This provides trading platform for emanation right. Emission trade thought is derived from â€Å" Kose theorem † , every bit long as the market dealing cost is zero, no affair what the initial belongings constellation position is, through the dealing can accomplish the optimum allotment of resources ( Aggie, 1995 ) . Emission trading is foremost used by the us federal agency in air pollution and river pollution direction, particularly since in 1990 it was used in entire SO2 emanations control, has achieved the unprecedented success, has achieved great economic benefits and societal benefits. Harmonizing to the entire U.S. accounting house estimates, American emanations are evidently controlled, at the same clip, the cost of pull offing pollution is saved by about 2 billion dollars ( Lehman, 1996 ) . Germany, Australia, UK and other states in turn conduct emanation portion trade policies and patterns. Already officially effectual Kyoto protocol besides proposes that from 2008, states can carry on emanation trading ends. The European Union has launched â€Å" waste gas emanation trading system † , seeking to utilize market economic agencies, use the â€Å" unseeable manus † to force European endeavors to take part in the procedure of nursery gas emanation decrease. The EU ‘s â€Å" exhaust emanation trading market † is the first international emanation trading market. The European committee harmonizing to â€Å" the entire control, divide the load † rule foremost identified each member C emanations, once more by each member assigned to the several national endeavors. As for allotment manner, each member authorities should apportion at least 95 % of quotas free to endeavors ; the staying 5 % quota can be adopted bidding manner ( IASB, 2010 ) .3. Accounting issue of pollution allowances3.1 verification of pollution allowance Emission right as a production factor is scarce and valuable, besides has the possibility of appreciation income ( Milne, 1996 ) . Harmonizing to the recognized accounting patterns, assets are defined as a consequence of past events and formed by endeavor control, and is expected to bring forth economic benefits to the endeavor resources. International accounting standard 38 â€Å" intangible assets † defines emanation right is granted by the authorities, and it is a specific signifier of the franchise right. As for the confirm scope job of intangible assets of pollution-discharge right, how to reasonably and rightly allow the initial emanation quotas to endeavors is a trouble. Western states in pattern the initial emanation rights ‘ allotment methods normally include bide, administer freely and fixed monetary value sell these 3 sorts. In position of the differences of pattern, in order to reliably step emanation trade value, accounting merely confirms the emanation righ ts through understanding mode transferred or purchased. When the active pollution-discharge right trade market is bit by bit formed, authorities freely distributed pollution-discharge right can be besides confirmed as intangible assets in the engagement. 3.2 measuring of pollution allowance â€Å" Quota emanations and cap-and-trade program † will configure the participating topic ( participants ) emanations and cut their emanation quota to a certain degree ( viz. quota ) ends ( Cook, 2009 ) . By and large the quota granted by competent authorities sections to the participants is equal to the figure of the bound. â€Å" A bound emanations and cap-and-trade program † set the operation clip is a twelvemonth, and an execution of quotas normally is granted during the period to participants ( Lohmann, 2009 ) , by and large after the execution verify the existent emanations. Participants can freely purchase or sell emanation quotas, hence, the participants have three picks: can restrict its emanations ; can cut down their emanations below the quota and sell portion of them ; can bring forth more than its bound emanations, in this instance they must buy the exceeded portion emanations quota and bear the penalty. Participating endeavors should in the beginning of e ach program confirm achieved emanation. After the execution of programs, the participants are asked to pay the existent emanation quotas. If the participants can non present the adequate quotas, so must defy higher penalty. Participants held emanation quotas shall be entered an point in an history as intangible assets, and the attesting value is the existent payment. When participants ‘ emanation occurs, the already happened emanations quota duty is recognised as a liability. Should pay attending, emanation quotas ‘ obtain do non make net assets or net liabilities. 3.3 revelation of emanation trading About emanation trading fiscal place, runing consequences and hard currency flows information, participants should first study emanation quotas in the balance sheet ( Aggie, 1995 ) . Due to take part in emanation program, doing some assets expected generated hard currency flow cut down, and the damage of information shall be disclosed. Second, more information is disclosed in off-balance-sheet, including corporate revelation of the purchase and sale of pollution-discharge right trade volume and the measure. At the same clip reflecting emanation of the market monetary value alterations, and endeavors ‘ emanation trading fluctuant circumstance, this information for constructing a successful effectual pollution-discharge right trade market is really necessary. Held emanation quotas may be farther subdivided into initial awarded quotas and subsequently in the trading market purchase quota, harmonizing to the different sorts of pollution index cleavage. If a company held emanation q uotas is more than initial allotment measure, this explains endeavors in emanation market purchase emanation right.4. Significance of pollution allowanceSince Emission trade is put frontward in 1960s, particularly in 1990 it is used in SO2 field, has won great economic benefits and societal benefits. But as for the current emanation trade consequence and intending even the most successful American in pattern at that place have different sentiments. In the United States, such as New Mexico senator Minnixi calls it as â€Å" 1980s the most promising scenario † ( Aggie, 1995 ) . China ‘s many bookmans besides think, compared with traditional environmental direction manner, the broad application of market thought, will be more effectual to cut down pollution emanations. And some bookmans but think this sort of environmental direction agencies is non every bit perfect as imaginativeness. For illustration the American natural resources protection association of attorneies, th e federal agency of air pollution ‘s former manager in 1986 conversation regarded this policy as a â€Å" cozenage † to let companies to increase pollution. At the same clip emanations ‘ trading in China is besides criticized by many bookmans, they think this policy is merely to copy the western jurisprudence, in China it has non wholly the possibility to win. I think that sufficient and sensible scene and building of pollution-discharge right trade market system can advance China ‘s air pollution and H2O pollution bar and control work and it is an of import manner of sustainable development. In the hereafter whether China ‘s air and H2O environment protection can acquire more advancement depends on whether signifier the existent significance of pollution-discharge right trade market, it non merely has economic value, more greatly environmental value. In Summary, the significance of emanation trading chiefly include the undermentioned facets: to cut th e whole societal cost, efficaciously better the efficiency of pull offing pollution ; to advance companies ‘ invention, better pollution engineering ; to organize economic development and environment protection to heighten international fight ; to better the quality of environment enforcement.DecisionIn the decision that pollution allowances represent assets that should be reported on the balance sheets of companies entitled to such allowances. Emission trade development makes the research on emanation trade accounting issue has of import realistic significance. This paper analyzes emanation of initial acknowledgment and measuring, and concluding revelation and so on a series of accounting jobs.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Characterization of E

Characterization of E Introduction E-commerce involves trading through the Internet. This is as a result of great familiarity in the Internet use all over the world. The Internet is being used greatly in the market, a thing that has contributed to growth in the world economies. The Internet is being used as a tool in advertising products and services in the market. It is also used by sellers as a channel of providing information to the consumers on their products and services.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Characterization of E-Commerce Traffic specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More This ensures that the buyers are well informed about the products before they make decisions to buy them. The power of servers providing e-commerce has been increasing but these sites have not been able to improve the services provided to the users. This has been leading to loss of revenue due to slow connectivity and thus effort should be put in order to perfect these sites (Floyd, 1986). E-commerce Sites In 2000, e-commerce generated $132 billion more than twice the money generated in 1999. With this it is clear that e-commerce is generating enough revenue (Glushko et al, 2001). Thus, it is important that the availability and performance of the e-commerce sites be improved and their performance monitored closely to ensure their efficiency. There are two types of e-commerce sites, those are, business to business and business to consumers. Business to business provides services to corporations while business to consumers provide services to individuals. The main difference between these two sites is the user population. The business to business site is usually restricted to corporations for security purpose while business to consumers usually has high population of users. The configuration of the general server is similar in both sites (Kant, 1992). Agreements of the services between corporations and individuals must be honored in order to r etain and gain customers. Performance and availability of the servers are two important things that must be checked for effective e-commerce. E-commerce environment server consists of two parts, those are, front end and back end network. Front end consists of web and application services accessible by the users over Internet while back end consists of security fire walls and the data base servers (Glushko et al, 2001). Managerial Implications Work load implication of e-commerce servers affects its performance for it is usually high. Server overload affects the performance and availability of e-commerce services and in return it reduces the income that would have been gained. E-commerce traffic greatly affects the usage of Internet for business and thus it is important that the ways of controlling this traffic be put in place (Kant, 1992).Advertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Load balancing is a common method that is being used to improve the performance of e-commerce servers. Understanding the workload of these servers is significant in efforts to eliminate traffic in e-commerce. Understanding of the work load in a typical e-commerce server is important in order to be able to develop schemes of eliminating traffic (Glushko et al, 2001). Another managerial implication is performance implication. This is usually as a result of web traffic, which leads to on/off processes. The response rate is very slow in e-commerce. The response times in e-commerce is believed to be heavy-tailed in nature though the response files are always of the same size. This is due to inclusion of images and video files in the overall traffic. In e-commerce, response time is dependent on processing and transfer time (Floyd, 1986). Reference List Floyd, A. (1986). Short-Term File Reference Patterns in a UNIX Environment. Technical Report, Computer Science Department, Universit y of Rochester. Glushko et al, (2001). An XML Framework for Agent-Based E-Commerce. Communications of ACM. New York: Prentice Hall Kant, K. (1992). Introduction to Computer System Performance Evaluation. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Monday, October 21, 2019

11 Personal Essay Topics on Favorite Food

11 Personal Essay Topics on Favorite Food If you are writing a personal essay on your favorite food, below are some facts that might help you craft a well-rounded presentation of food related content: Many students choose those foods which are naturally fast and simple, without the preparatory work of cooking because of their lack of time. Because of this many companies today provide fast meals that offer all of the nutritional options necessary for all dietary types including vegetarian and vegan. There are snack packs which include an equal dose of all the nutritional options the body requires, in the form of a single meal serving size. These options include fats, carbohydrates, and proteins so that they leave students more satiated. Favorite foods are often something that the body craves because of what is contained therein. What is perhaps most fascinating about this is that many students will crave favorite foods like those heavy carbohydrate items that remind them of home when they are sad, or chicken noodle soup when they are sick, and even sugary treats when they are feeling tired. While not all of these are scientifically proven to improve health or energy levels, they nonetheless are so powerful mentally that they result in complete satiation and sometimes healing. Chicken noodle soup, for example, is something high in sodium but is generally a favorite of students when they are sick because it reminds them of home and their parents caring for them. This actually results in healing properties. The food you eat provides fuel for your body. Nutrients are broken down in your body and supplied to your muscles, put into your blood and used by your organs. Nutrient intake varies based on what you are doing – the demands that you regularly place on your body. A physically active person requires more nutrients and calories than does one that is inactive. However, your caloric and nutrient intake will also vary based on your physical fitness regimen. For example, your body uses carbohydrates as a source of quick energy. Therefore, those who are involved with long-distance running tend to carb up before the race. This provides their body with the essential nutrients needed for high performance. During the off-season, though, or in-between races, runners reduce their intake of carbohydrates. This is because a surplus of carbs is usually stored as fat in the body. Getting the proper nutrition is more than important. This includes eating less fat, eating smaller portions and getting the right mix of vitamins and nutrients from your food. Setting nutritional goals is the best way to work your way toward a healthy diet. Setting these goals can be simple, and can be a good way to evaluate your progress toward a healthy diet.For example, you might set a goal to eat your recommended daily allowance of whole grains every day. To meet this goal, you can eat things like oatmeal, wholegrain bread and other foods. Track what you eat and then compare your results for a week to your goals. Evaluate your overall progress based on how close to meeting your goals are. One good thing to know is how to control your cravings. Your body craves things when it needs a certain nutrient. By recognizing these cravings you can give your body what it needs in a healthier manner. If you are craving chocolate it means your body needs magnesium. Therefore you should eat: Nuts Seeds Fruit Legumes If your body is craving sweets or sugary foods it needs Chromium, Phosphorous, Sulphur, Carbon, and Tryptophan. Therefore you should eat: Fresh fruit Broccoli Cheese Chicken Grapes Beef Nuts Raisins Spinach Sweet potatoes If you are craving bread or pasta your body needs nitrogen. Therefore you should eat: High protein such as meat Fish Beans Nuts If you are craving oily foods or fatty foods your body needs calcium. Therefore you should eat Milk Green leafy vegetables Cheese Broccoli Yogurt If you are craving salty foods your body needs chloride so you should eat: Fish Goats milk Diet Plans: There are myriad diet plans on the market today, ranging from the cabbage soup diet to the Atkins diet. Most of these are fads and they offer no real benefits. The best diet is one that provides you optimum nutritional intake, limits your intake of fats and is firmly founded in all major food groups. Performance Enhancing Products: there are lots of products out there that claim to enhance your performance. Few of these are good choices, though. Some can be good solutions, such as protein powder for bodybuilders. However, that does not mean that they are right for the average person. You need to contrast their nutritional value with their cost, as well as their effectiveness. Herbs: herbs can seem like optimal solutions for dietary needs. Theyre natural, after all. Herbs can be very good for helping you improve your health. For instance, many herbs offer dense nutritional content that can be good for many conditions (valerian for sleep, etc.). Again, this does not mean they are right for you. Many herbs can be harmful when consumed in high quantities. Therefore, just because a product lists natural herbs as ingredients, it does not immediately follow that the product is good for you. Sports Drinks: sports drinks are great for those who play hard. They offer rehydration and can replenish electrolytes lost through sweat and physical exertion. However, sports drinks are really only good while playing sports. Opening such a drink while studying is a bad idea. The sugar content, sodium and other elements in the drink can actually do more harm than good. If you dont need the support offered by these drinks, then water is best. Weight Gain Products: products that tout their weight gaining abilities are popular, particularly with those who feel that they are underweight or who want to bulk up. However, most of these are not particularly good solutions for a growing body. Using them can have some very serious side effects. If you feel that you need to gain weight, then adding protein through your diet and increasing your physical activity is the best option. Weight Loss Products: weight loss products have been around as long as humans have felt fat. Most of these products are bunk, pure and simple. Many of them can be dangerous, as well. If you feel that you need to lose weight, then a healthy diet and plenty of exercise is the best solution available. When you are writing a personal essay on your favorite food, it is very important to remember that healthy diet and active way of life improve your state. So, we hope that when you read these facts, you’ll understand that you need to change something and then you’ll write about your favorite healthy food. If you need to make a topic for your paper, check out our sample essay topics and look at the writing guide on a personal essay. References: Chaney, M., Ross, M. (1971).  Nutrition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Cheyette, C., Balolia, Y. (2010).  Carbs cals. [London]: Chello in association with Diabetes UK. Lawton, B., Szarek, W., Jones, J. (1969). A simple synthesis of azidodeoxy-sugars via chlorodeoxy-sugars.  Journal Of The Chemical Society D: Chemical Communications, (14), 787. Long, C.  Glycemic load of whole grains, refined grains, and simple sugars consumed at breakfast. Mackenzie, J. (1913).  The sugars and their simple derivatives. London: Gurney and Jackson. Nitric oxide and insulin resistance. (2015).  Immunoendocrinology.  Santon, K. (2007).  Calorie Counting. Collins.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

An Overview of Burlesque Literature With Examples

An Overview of Burlesque Literature With Examples Burlesque literature is a form of satire. It is often and perhaps best described as â€Å"an incongruous imitation.†Ã‚   The purpose of burlesque literature is to imitate the manner or the subject matter of a â€Å"serious† literary genre, author, or work through a comic inversion.   Imitations of manner might include the form or the style, whereas imitation of matter is meant to satirize the subject being explored in a particular work or genre.    Elements of Burlesque While a burlesque piece may aim to poke fun at a particular work, genre, or subject, it is most often the case that burlesque will be a satire of all of these elements. What is important to consider about this mode of literature is that the point of the burlesque is to create an incongruity, a ridiculous disparity, between the manner of the work and the matter of it. While â€Å"travesty,† â€Å"parody,† and â€Å"burlesque† are terms that are often used interchangeably, it is perhaps better to consider travesty and parody as types of burlesque, with burlesque being the generic term for the larger mode. That being said, it is also important to note that a burlesque piece may employ a number of techniques which fall into the larger category; it is not necessarily the case that all burlesque literature will share all of the same features. High And Low Burlesque There are two primary types of burlesque, the â€Å"High Burlesque† and the â€Å"Low Burlesque.†Ã‚   Within each of these types, there are further divisions. These sub-divisions are based on whether the burlesque satirizes a genre or literary type, or, instead, a specific work or author. Let’s take a closer look at these types. High Burlesque occurs when the form and style of the piece are dignified and â€Å"high,† or â€Å"serious† while the subject matter is trivial or â€Å"low.†Ã‚   The types of high burlesque include the â€Å"mock epic† or â€Å"mock-heroic† poem, as well as the parody. A mock epic is itself a type of parody.   It imitates the generally complicated and elaborate form of the epic poem, and it also imitates that genre’s rather formalized style. In so doing, however, it applies this â€Å"high† form and style to rather ordinary or insignificant topics. A significant example of a mock epic is Alexander Pope’s The Rape of the Lock (1714), which is elegant and elaborate in style, but which, on its surface, has only a lady’s curl as its subject. A parody, similarly, will imitate one or many of a variety of characteristics of a piece of high, or serious, literature.   It might mock the style of a certain author or the features of an entire literary genre. Its focus might also be an individual work.   The point is to employ those same features and characteristics, at a high or serious level, and exaggerate it while simultaneously employing a low, comic, or otherwise inappropriate subject. Parody has been the most popular form of burlesque since the early 1800s.   Some of the best examples include Jane Austen’s Northanger Abbey (1818) and A.S. Byatt’s Possession: A Romance (1990).   Parody predates these, however, appearing in such works as Joseph Andrews (1742) by Henry Fielding, and â€Å"The Splendid Shilling† (1705) by John Phillips. Low Burlesque occurs when the style and manner of a work are low or undignified but, in contrast, the subject matter is distinguished or high in status. The types of low burlesque include the Travesty and the Hudibrastic poem. A travesty will mock a â€Å"lofty† or serious work by treating the high subject in a grotesque and undignified manner and (or) style.   One classic example of a modern travesty is the film Young Frankenstein, which mocks   Mary Shelley’s original novel, (1818). The Hudibrastic poem is so-named for Samuel Butler’s Hubidras (1663).   Butler turns the  chivalric romance on its head, inverting the dignified style of that genre in order to present a hero whose travels were mundane and often humiliating. The Hudibrastic poem might also employ colloquialisms and other examples low style, such as the doggerel verse, in place of traditionally high style elements. The Lampoon In addition to High and Low Burlesque, which include parody and travesty, another example of the burlesque is the lampoon.   Some short, satirical works are considered lampoons, but one might also find the lampoon as a passage or insert into a longer work.   Its goal is to make ridiculous, often via caricature, a particular person, usually by describing the nature and appearance of the individual in an absurd way. Other Notable Burlesque Works The Comedies of AristophanesTale of Sir Thopas (1387) by Geoffrey Chaucer Morgante (1483) by Luigi Pulci The Virgile Travesty (1648-53) by Paul Scarron The Rehearsal (1671) by George Villier Beggars Opera (1728) by John Gay Chrononhotonthologos (1734) by Henry Carey

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Extent of Growth Depends on the Diversity Among the Students and Essay

Extent of Growth Depends on the Diversity Among the Students and Faculty - Essay Example I was born in Macao, and hail from a Chinese background. This has influenced my viewing of the world from a Chinese perspective. Over the time that I have spent in the United States of America, I have broadened my vision of the world through interaction with students from different cultural and economic backgrounds, and with different academic capabilities. It is this experience that I believe will stand me in good stead in my choice of a good classmate to assist me in the development of myself as a person, and my knowledge and skills. I also believe that this is not intended to be one-way traffic of me receiving only, as I am capable of giving assistance for the development of other individuals. My potential classmate would be of Indian origin. There are several reasons for this choice of mine. Indians have had a very long culture and tradition extending as long as the Chinese. This has deeply ingrained traditional, cultural and social values in Indians. Such deeply ingrained culture and tradition do not wipe off easily in new environments, and there will be ample opportunities when these will be displayed. The reason why I feel that Indian traditions and culture are important lies in the ability of Indians to cope with adversity and then emerge triumphant. India is rising as an economic power of esteem within six decades of gaining independence from the ruin of two hundred years of colonial rule. I believe I have leadership qualities, but in this changing world, I need to develop the ability to cope with change, which I believe my Indian classmate could give me.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Changing the BIOS Clock Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Changing the BIOS Clock - Essay Example Event logs in Windows 7 and Vista have a total default size of 20Mb while in Windows XP the total default size on event logs is 512 KB. The event logs work in the same way in Windows XP, Windows 7 and Vista as they tend to fill up according to the order of events. The log will go back to the beginning when it is filled up with events. In such a case, it implements an overwriting process based on the old events. In instances where the BIOS clock has been changed, discrepancies in the order of events will be evident. Logs are recorded according to the time they occurred. Ordering entries of event logs by file set and parsing the event logs is a practice that will determine whether system clock has been altered. When the dates jump backward and forward again, it provides evidence that the system clock has been altered. On the other hand, if no activity is recorded when parsing and ordering the events log entries, it indicates the system clock has not been altered. If the BIOS clock has been altered in Windows 7 or Windows Vista, the altered time will also be recorded in the event log as event ID 1. Evidence regarding the creation or accessing files during changing of the BIOS clock can be found in a computer within the link files. Link files usually contain recorded dates and time when files had been accessed. The values are recorded when the operating system starts to operate at the beginning of a session. All link files from the same session will have a similar sequence value (Whitfield 2012 p.4). Sequence numbers within object IDs will enable arranging of files in a chronological order. In cases where the computer clock has been altered, the times, as well as the dates, will be anomalous. In Windows XP, the sequence number will be recorded when the system is booted so, in instances where the clock has been tampered with and moved forward and backward, evidence may be obtained from the sequence value as the system would have recorded the order in which specific files had been accessed originally. The system records dates and times when a computer is booted at the beginning of the session. An object ID will be created, and a similar date will be recorded for all object IDs created in the boot session. The sequence value will also be the same in that booting session. In cases where the clock has been changed to an earlier time period, an increment will occur in the sequence value in the next booting session while the date in the object ID will appear out of synchronization (Parsonage, 2008 p 15). References Parsonage, H. 2008. The Meaning of Link Files in Forensic Examinations. Retrieved from Whitfield, L. 2012. Detecting CMOS Clock Changes. Retrieved from DQ 2: Honey Net Challenge Question 1: Who is Joe Jacob’s supplier of marijuana and what is the address listed for the supplier? Joe Jacob’s supplier of marijuan a is a person named Jimmy Jungle and his address is identified as 626 Jungle Avenue #2 Jungle, New York 11111. Evidence regarding the name of Joe Jacob’s supplier can be obtained from a letter in the floppy disk. The letter is a deleted word document from Joe Jacob to his supplier of marijuana. In the letter, the address and the name of the supplier can be clearly seen.  

Commercial transaction law and practice Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Commercial transaction law and practice - Essay Example The company should have been also the one who did the vetting of the delivered to make sure that he was believable and trustworthy enough to run such errands. Instead, the company hired someone who would later be identified as a gang member after BB failed to receive the goods. When entering into a contract regarding the selling and buying of a product, there should be certain terms that are to be reached by the two parties that are involved. There are two major ways through which this issue can be resolved. First of all, the two parties are supposed to agree on the time range that will be given for the delivery of the goods. There should also be an agreement about the prices of the products that are being traded. Finally, and just as important, the two parties should agree about who of them is supposed to be responsible for the delivery of the goods. If the supplier is the one to deliver the goods, he is supposed to take charge of the entire process up until the time that the recipient will be able to acknowledge, in signing that he has received the goods from the supplier and that now he takes full responsibility for them. Should anything happen to the goods at this point, then the recipient is the one who is to suffer the damages. The second option that is present in such agreements is that once the goods are ready, it is the consumer who is supposed to take charge of the delivery of the goods to where he wants them. In this case, he may either come for them or organize for how the goods will reach him. Therefore, in this case, once the goods leave the premises of the supplier, they are supposed to sign and agree that now the consumer is taking liability for all the goods and that if anything should occur to them, he will be entirely responsible (Hyland and Patterson, 1999). In the case that is present, the supplier, PSL is the one that is in charge of making sure that the products have reached his client. This means that unless the

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Health Safety and Security Practices Assignment

Health Safety and Security Practices - Assignment Example Belonging is all about having a relationship that is secure or having a connection with the customers, as well as the working staffs. In a salon, having the security of belonging is important in maintaining a good relationship with other people in the working environment. It is also important in boosting individuals self-esteem making one has the courage to do his or her job perfectly. Therefore, in any working environment, the sole priority of the leader is to encourage and ensure that all the working staffs develop a sense of security to avoid any misunderstanding and quarrels. Additionally, one should ensure that the client belongings are safe and secure. Prior to hanging any coats, counterchecking the pockets remain vital, remove all the important items and keep them in a safe place. In a salon, there are different types of solid as well as liquid wastes that require safe disposal. By disposing of the materials safely, the environment will be protected from causing any potential harm. In disposing of the materials, salon policies for hazardous wastes and management must be followed correctly. All the sharp materials in the salon such as needles and pins should be safely be disposed of in sharp boxes. The dilute chemicals should be disposed of in running water. The single used items such as gloves should be disposed of in peddle bins. Finally, the materials that can be recycled are put in recycled empties for decontamination and drying. Before an emergency occurs, ensure that the emergency equipment is in place and working. The first aid box should contain all the needed materials that will be used in an event of an emergency. The fire extinguishers should be in a strategic location where it can be accessed and in a working condition. In a case of an emergency, call the ambulance and the fire extinguishers. Inform all the people to go to fire assembly points.

Missouri Crimes Against Property Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Missouri Crimes Against Property - Essay Example Usually, property crimes are large crimes targeting jewelry, electronics, for example, stereos, cameras, and other valuable equipment. Products that are included in property crime tend to be enjoyable, concealable, valuable, available, removable, and easy to dispose (Allen, 2005). This paper will look at  the State of Missouri, and its statute concerning a crime against property. A robbery charge should not be taken lightly because the outcomes of a guilty verdict are extremely harsh. Missouri law classifies a robbery charge as either that in the second degree, or that in the first degree. In Missouri, first degree robbery is categorized as a class A felony. The class A felony constitutes a prison term that is between 10 to 30 years. An individual is involved in robbery in the first degree when he uses force to steal possessions from another person and displays, threatens, uses, or possesses a deadly or dangerous weapon, or causes severe physical harm to an individual. In contrast, an individual is involved in robbery in the second degree when he employs force to steal belongings from another person (Conklin, 1972). In Missouri, second degree robbery is categorized as a class B felony. ... The definitions of robbery crime used are mainly of two types: those that are modified to the standards of American Law Institute Model Penal Code and those directly originated from the former English common law (Friedman, 2005). Missouri statues move into extra details while a small number of states like Virginia, leave the description as it is in the common law. Under the historical common law or older definitions of robbery, it demands proof of theft, the key common law theft, the theft is by fear or force, and the theft is from immediate presence or person of the victim. Use of Fear or Force The prime element of robbery is that theft be by means of either fear or force. A common form of robbery that utilizes force is mugging. In this case, the robber holds the neck of an unsuspecting individual from the rear and uses force to take his or her valuables, for example, wallet, purse, or phone. Other popular forms of force include striking a victim with a blunt object, fist, or gun. I n contrast, picking another person’s pocket is not presumed as robbery. This is because there is no perceived use of fear or force, and robbery entails the use of force and not just removing the belongings from the pocket (Siegel, 2003). Nevertheless, if the robber manhandles the victim during the taking, or if the victim is aware of the endeavor and resists, it becomes robbery. Taking from Presence or Person Another element of robbery, under historical common law,  is that the action be in the immediate presence of the victim or from the individual. Possession is considered taken from a person if it is taken from his clothing or hand, or from an area where it is hidden while the individual is running away from the robber. A victim’s

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Health Safety and Security Practices Assignment

Health Safety and Security Practices - Assignment Example Belonging is all about having a relationship that is secure or having a connection with the customers, as well as the working staffs. In a salon, having the security of belonging is important in maintaining a good relationship with other people in the working environment. It is also important in boosting individuals self-esteem making one has the courage to do his or her job perfectly. Therefore, in any working environment, the sole priority of the leader is to encourage and ensure that all the working staffs develop a sense of security to avoid any misunderstanding and quarrels. Additionally, one should ensure that the client belongings are safe and secure. Prior to hanging any coats, counterchecking the pockets remain vital, remove all the important items and keep them in a safe place. In a salon, there are different types of solid as well as liquid wastes that require safe disposal. By disposing of the materials safely, the environment will be protected from causing any potential harm. In disposing of the materials, salon policies for hazardous wastes and management must be followed correctly. All the sharp materials in the salon such as needles and pins should be safely be disposed of in sharp boxes. The dilute chemicals should be disposed of in running water. The single used items such as gloves should be disposed of in peddle bins. Finally, the materials that can be recycled are put in recycled empties for decontamination and drying. Before an emergency occurs, ensure that the emergency equipment is in place and working. The first aid box should contain all the needed materials that will be used in an event of an emergency. The fire extinguishers should be in a strategic location where it can be accessed and in a working condition. In a case of an emergency, call the ambulance and the fire extinguishers. Inform all the people to go to fire assembly points.

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Sexual Harassment Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Sexual Harassment - Research Paper Example It was also clear that the policy on sexual harassment in the University was not effective due to inaccessibility and ignorance on the content of the policy. The findings faulted the university unpreparedness to deal with the aftermath of sexual harassment and also the inadequacy that was noted in terms of practices and the resourcefulness of the university to deal with sexual harassment. The research recommended the increase avenues of accessing the policy documents, the creation of awareness and major changes like including gender studies as a common unit in the university. The study also recommended that the university to improve the quality of the reporting of sexual harassment to the form that could be easily accessed by the victimized students. Increase in the intelligence was also recommended by the study among other recommendations. This section is an introduction of factors affecting Sexual Harassment directed on students in the University. It contains background of the study, problem statement, as well as objectives of the study. It also consists of significance of the study. Throughout the theoretical history of sexual harassment, scholars from multiple disciplines in the social sciences have grappled with a diverse set of interpretation of the definitions to conceptualize this abstract idea. According to Kenyatta University Sexual Harassment policy; (2010), sexual harassment is defined as unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature that tends to create a hostile or offensive work environment. Bingham, S and Scherer, L. (2001) defines sexual harassment to include some specific range of offensive behaviors. In his argument, he suggested that the behavior is always repetitive and intended to present some disturbance and also to upset. He underscores this definition by saying that sexual harassment could refer

Monday, October 14, 2019

Student visas problem Essay Example for Free

Student visas problem Essay Abstract American by no means is the world’s superpower. The country is very advanced in many aspects like education, technology, business and Research with prestigious learning institutions like the renowned Harvard University. For these reasons student across the globe strive to come to the US and get their education from here. In most cases the various graduates of the American colleges and Universities always stand a higher chance of getting employment into their careers. Graduates from the American educational system are highly regarded as extremely qualified and can also be integrated by employers anywhere in the world. (http://www. hothousemedia. com) Unfortunately most foreign students who come to the US on student Visas end up not pursuing education but take advantage of the various loopholes to remain in the country illegally. With the increased issue about terrorism, most terrorist have taken advantage of the student visas to gain entry into the American Soil where they pursue their own terrorist activities that endanger the lives of the Americans: for example one of the terrorist involved with the 9/11 attack is said to have been a student on such a Visa. For this particular reason the authorities in American have tightened the rules and regulations that govern the acquisition of these Visas. To acquire a student visa today is extremely difficult than before and many aspiring students are denied the opportunity to study in the US because of these restrictions. However, from the American point of view it is justifiable because the security of the country comes first before anything else. (www. unitedstatesvisas. gov). The students on the other hand are not able to understand these issues, and more or less view it as one of the hindrance of them acquiring the much sought after American Education. To acquire the student visas the American immigration department has comprehensively undertaken the task of educating the â€Å"would-be American students† of the requirements for one to acquire the visas. Unfortunately the students do not sometimes understand the requirements thus fail in acquiring these important items. The students may not also know the laws governing the student visas; the immigration rules in the US are rated as some of the strictest and specific, thereby shutting out many aspiring students. Introduction Millions of foreign students are always fighting to get a place in the American academic institutions. The quality of education in the US is highly regarded across the globe which assures anyone a very promising career development. Prior to the September 11 attack, the acquisition of the American student visa was not as difficult as it is today, which has become a nightmare not only for students but businessmen and women including tourists. (http://www. businessweek. com) Most of the challenges that the students face come from the lack of clear understanding of the rules and regulations surrounding the visas. However, the regulations that govern the visa application are extremely punitive and innocent students are left out. This paper is going to discuss some of the difficulties faced by these students. The application process The first major challenge the students face in acquiring the Visa are the various rules and regulations that one has to understand before applying. Students are required to pay a non-refundable fee of $131, which does not necessarily guarantee one of getting the Visa in the first place. This fee is very prohibitive because not so many students can be able to afford it especially bearing in mind it is never refunded if the visa application is not successful. (http://www. businessweek. com) Part of the Visa application process involves an interview with the US Embassy or consulate where further screening is done on the students to ascertain the authenticity of their application. To secure the interview posses greater challenges, this is because depending on the months that one is applying, one is bound to get appointments that might jeopardize the scheduled dates of joining the university or college. It requires the students to start making the applications very early because the appointments can be as far as one month depending on the applications made. Even after acquiring the appointment the students go through various screening processes that maybe dehumanizing especially to the innocent students. Such screening processes include frisking, and finger printing, besides the interview itself. Many students fail to acquire the visa because they fail on various technicalities that they were not clearly made aware of. Sometimes it is extremely difficult to clearly understand the criteria used to award visas, in fact most of the time one considers him/herself lucky to pass the interview. Thus it is not what one has but the mood of the interviewer that matters. There are many cases where students with almost similar backgrounds have varied outcomes on the application; while one may get the other may miss out. The student is never given the opportunity to lobby for a consideration as the word of the interviewer is regarded as final. Therefore the visa application process is always shrouded in mystery, where there are no clear guidelines on who gets the visa or who doesn’t. Therefore one is not really sure that they will pass or fail. Many students after failing the rigorous tests become very discouraged and they are affected psychologically because of the high expectations they had. (Mashiur Rahaman) One of the best solutions for this problem is to educate the students on the visa application process; thereby the students are fully aware of the various pitfalls that they need to overcome and every single detail that is required for the visa process to be successful. To secure an appointment for an interview in a particular embassy is not necessarily a difficult task because all this can be done on-line. However the embassies get busy in July through August and most students may miss out because of the schedules that are fixed by the embassies. ( http://www. bridgeport. edu ) The students who fail in these interviews end up losing the $131 fee and to secure another interview they require a similar amount. This is a very big challenge and the fee should be refundable or just a part of it so that the students can secure other appointments. Students from poor families end up losing their lively-hoods yet they don’t acquire the much-sought document. The U. S embassies should have clear and specific guidelines on the criteria used which should never be shrouded in any form of mystery where a student can out rightly tell if they are qualified or not. (http://www. Another challenge that the students undergo in the visa application process, is the requirement that they should provide proof that they will not go to the U. S for other purposes and that they are capable of supporting themselves when they get there. The students or guidance are required to show proof of there bank accounts which are supposed to hold a certain amount of money for a period of time. Many instances students are able to finance there own education by working part time. In any case this requirement means that only the rich stand the chance of getting the American education. Because of the many restrictions students end up cheating in their documents and providing incorrect information. ( http://www. bridgeport. edu ) Once a student has successfully acquired the visa, another problem sets in; one needs to pay for the visa. The amounts are very prohibitive bearing in mind that one needs to pay for the education, airfare, accommodation, and other important materials. Therefore by the time one settles down in the U. S, if you are lucky enough you are poorer than you came in. (http://www. cnsnews. com) Once in the U.S, to ever get the opportunity to go back home to be with your family is almost next to impossible. This is because the chances of ever being accommodated back are very slim. There are many cases of students being delayed for up to 1 year when they want to come back for what is termed as security screening. Students from the Muslim world have to go through harrowing experiences for them to ever go back to the U. S after their holidays. (http://www. cnsnews. com) It is often advisable to stick in the U. S for as long as you are in college unless you want to waste time and money with the immigration. One should forget for a long while of ever going back home for up to 4 years. Students with tight family ties end up suffering a lot. (http://www. cnsnews. com) Conclusion The terrorism issue has gone a long way in making it harder for innocent students to pursue their dreams in the U. S. It is quite understandable of the strict rules that the visa application processes attract, because any loophole would be greatly exploited by the terrorists who do not discriminate in there harmful activities. Students have to bear the brunt of terrorism. It also important for the students to be fully aware of the visa requirements before starting the process, this will enable them avoid any eventual disappointment. Works Cited Fred Lucas: CNSNews. com Staff Writer: 10,000 Saudi Students on US Campuses Retrieved on 17th May 2008 from http://www. cnsnews. com/ViewNation. asp? Page=/Nation/archive/200702/NAT20070216a. html February 16, 2007 UnitedStatesVisas. gov: Studying in the U. S: Retrieved on 17th May 2008 from www. unitedstatesvisas. gov/studying. html US Visas: Retrieved on 17th May 2008 from: http://www.hothousemedia. com/etm/etmbackissues/septetm04/septetm04feature. htm BusinessWeekOnline: Foreign MBA. Students Beware: Retrieved on 17th May 2008 from http://www. businessweek. com/bschools/content/dec2001/bs2001126_8956. htm December 6, 2001 Applying for a Student Visa (useful tips):Retrieved on 17th May 2008 from http://www. bridgeport. edu/pages/2342. asp Mashiur Rahaman: Malaysia offers UK and US degrees at half the cost: Retrieved on 17th May 2008 from http://www. dailytimes. com. pk/default. asp? page=2007%5C09%5C26%5Cstory_26-9-2007_pg7_26.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Ecommerce business plan for an electronics store

Ecommerce business plan for an electronics store Online business is becoming very vast slowly and steadily. There is a lot of profit in this kind of business. Like EBAY and AMAZON our company has took a step in the field of online business. The Domain name of the website is The image which can be seen below is of a homepage of THE RAY website. This homage is browsed on the first paragraph. In the first part it is explained briefly that how we run our day to day business. In the second part it is described that what are the tools or equipments which we use to run our business. The third part is about all the services which we give to our online customers. Fourth part describes that how do we serve our customers. The fifth part explains about how the customers can pay safely and how do we use to provide such kind of services in better and safe environment. The sixth part includes out location of our offices. The Ray is an online business which sells products to its online customers. This is the companys website homepage. In the homepage it is easy for the customers to search or find out what they are looking for because we cover almost all brands. If, in case the product which the customer is looking for is an old model than they can click on ALL BRANDS to find the one they are looking for or they can contact us. We will try to arrange that product available to that customer if possible but, the charges for those services will be extra. Other big companies logos are visible, the reason for this is that we have products from these companies and customer can find the one they are looking for easily because nowadays everyone is looking for the latest products and the latest products which are very popular are being produced by these companies. The option of category is available to make the customers search more customized. Secondly, deals are also available; when a customer clicks on it he/she can see the deals like if you buy this game you will get 2cds free e.t.c. New arrivals option is also available; this is to make the customers feel easy to see what has arrived new. The customer can compare prices of the different products with the different specification; this will help those customers who are looking for the cheap products. Ads can be seen on the websites, we get money through the pay per click concept. At the bottom there are further details which can be seen by the customer, to browse our website more easily. There is an option of third parties on the web page on which when a customer clicks he/she finds many ads which are posted by other customers to sell their own products. The Ray charges a nominal amount on each transaction made in the section of Third Parties. Business day to day operations:- In online business some very important operations such as order taking, order processing, website management, updating, accounting or book keeping, advertising and marketing implementation, credit card authorizations, shipping, inventory management, Customer service and ordering are compulsory for our business so that we can make some new way do some of task easily such as order taking, order processing, website management, updating, credit card authorizations and inventory management for that we choose the new generation e commerce software called Boos cart its process the task that is mentioned above:- Boss Cart:- Basket Boss was an application of E-commerce shopping basket, specifically designed to meet the needs for small and medium retailers requirements.  Boss Cart was created using the latest technology and runs on Windows, Linux and all other web platforms.  Boss Cart was tested with more than 20,000 items to ensure timely and efficient as possible. The software is specially optimized for use by small and medium enterprises and friendly from the start.  It has a built-in Web 2.0 functionality and drags and drop interface for quick access to products and product attributes.  Boss Cart has the ability to specify the shipping and the weight of each product, and import or export data in CSV format.  The software has a powerful search engine feature of the product and downloads an image wider product range, seven additional images per product all purchases are automatically confirmed by e-mail late. The software Boss Cart provides wide range of options and features that are important.  Boss Cart is designed to work with the most popular markets such as eBay and Google Base, and it also set up a PayPal payment of treatment may be most of our online store.  Below is a picture of how Boss Cart Premium is working with these systems Benefits of using this software:- * Quick and easy to implement. Store Manager * Powerful, handles over 10,000 products. * Create your store look and feel or use one of our predefined templates. * Integration of our online store with a payment gateway of our choice. * Host our store with the web hosting company of our choice. * From marketing and merchandising functions, including social networking / marketing plug-in. * Bulk uploads to populate our products Easy Store. * Export products to Google Base. * Process orders online or offline. * Calculates postage, VAT and other taxes. * The product can be inclusive or exclusive of VAT. * Stock level control function. * Alerts low stock.Print invoices, packing slips and address labels * Extensive sales statistics to know what products sell well and which not. * Backup and restore function Customer service -: Our speciality in day to day operation, Our web site decided to give high quality customer service, for that there is an option through that our customers clarify their question, product information, buying suggestion, doubts about our product or the payment system and where Ever they want. It works 24 hours per day. Equipments we use to run our business:- Every company needs some equipment to run their business and The Ray company also use some equipments such as-credit card payment processing equipment and software ,desktop computer, desk and desk chair, postage machine and postage scale, shipping supplies, telephone and also use toll free telephone number which is really helpful to the customers and suppliers to stay in touch properly. The ray company also use finance software which is really helpful to print the invoice of the customers. Supplier sell products most competitive prices and the ray company buy their products from a supplier. Now this company try to buy their products from china and India because in china and Indian supplier can give good quality products in cheap price. The menu of products or services that we provide:- There are many products and services that we provide to our online customers. The ray is an online business that sells products online. In this business we sell Mobile phones, Personnel computers and accessories. Beside all these things we work as a middle person as well. In our website an option of third parties can be found. When a customer clicks on there than he/she enters into a new homepage in which the customer can find different types of advertisements posted by the other customer with the contact details. That advertisement contains the full contact information of the customer so that the person, who is interested in that particular product, can contact the owner. On every successful transaction which is made in the section of third parties, are charged a nominal fee. There is an option for all those customers who want to buy old models of electronic items. If the customer did not find that particular product even after trying the advanced search and buy searching the option of all brands, than they can contact us and request that particular product. They only need to fill up a simple request form, the image of that form can be seen below. If we have that particular product listed in our website than we will not charge the customer for our services, and if in case we dont have that product than we will search that product for the customer and sell it to him. There are some charges on this services and that depends on the type of product. Service Request Form Please complete the following form and à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦..representative will contact you to schedule your appointment at a time and place that are convenient to you. Keep in mind, we come to you! If you need immediate assistance please call 07404181844 Top of Form name Address City County Postcode Email Address Primary Telephone Alternate Telephone How Did You Hear About Nerd Force Equipment Information Brief Equipment Information Operating System Internet Access Network Problem Description Our potential customers and delivery service :- The important thing is companys delivery, for this the ray company use lots of method of delivery. Basically they use their own delivery van in the city and for those customers who are out of the city or country they use DHL and FedEx mail service and this kind of service helps the customers to get their products within short time. Transactions:- In e-commerce, both buyers and sellers have the same concerns they have always had, customers need a reliable way to pay money securely without worrying that their credit card information might be stolen the seller needs to know that the customer isnt using a stolen credit card. Luckily, online payments are safer than ever and more options exist than ever before. To get paid promptly and reliably have to go through some extra steps to make the customer feel secure- not to mention protecting yourself, too successful e commerce is about setting up the right atmosphere for making purchases, providing options for payment, and keeping sensitive information private. Its also about making sure that the goods get to the customer safety and on time. We are giving customers to ability to provide payment online. Our goal is accomplish the following:- Giving the customer options:- Online shoppers like to feel that they have some degree of control give them a choice of payments alternatives: credit card, debit card are the main ones. Some also like a choice of online payment services they want to see that you accept Google checkout as well as PayPal for instance. Keep payment secure :- Pay an extra fee to your webhost to have your customer submit their credit card numbers or other personal information to a secure server- a server that uses secure sockets layer encryption to render it unreadable if stolen. Make payment convenient:- Shoppers on the web are in a hurry. We give them the web page forms and the phone numbers they need do that they can complete a purchases in a matter of seconds. Online Merchant Accounts:- A merchant account is an account maintained by a bank or processor to receive and process orders online with a credit card.  Indeed, money from your online sales are deposited into your merchant account.  Not all banks have the capacity to handle all types of credit in all currencies.Therefore, it is not unusual for a merchant who, for example, wants to transform the Visa and MasterCard both U.S. and Canadian fund orders merchant accounts no more than one financial institution to  work-related. Payment options:- One of the most important aspects of running the online business is being able to collect payments from our customers. In the physical world, that amount to having functional cash register with an attached credit or debit card processing terminal. In the online business world, this is even more important. According to Cisco Internet Business Solutions (IBSG) Primary Research about Expected Change in Payment Mechanism Usage for Online Purchases over Next Two Years the Alternate payment providers, such as PayPal, have grown dramatically during this current wave. Thirty-five percent of all respondents cite frequent or very frequent use of alternate payment providers in online payments, and consumers indicate expectations of more frequent usage in the future. In over online business we are provided alternative payment methods shows as below Payment and processing the orders:- When someone submits making a order and giving card information to us, we need to transfer the information to the banking system. To submit credit card information to our bank, we need point of sale (POS) hardware or software. The hardware, which we either purchase or lease from our bank, is a terminal. (a gray box of the sort can see at many local retailers) The software is a program that contacts the bank through the modem. The terminal or software is programmed to authorize the sale and transmit the data to the bank, the bank then credit our business checking account. Then bank also deduct the discount rate from our account weekly, monthly, or with each transaction. Our location:- Office address:   184 Sudbury heights avenue, London, ub60ll     Opening Hours:   10:30 AM   6:00 PM  Monday to Sunday ex. Friday and Tuesday   Ã‚  Ã‚   You can bring in your laptops, just pop in during opening hours, No appointment needed Contact us:  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Tel: 02087822185  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Mobile 07404181844 Email à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Fax: 02087822185  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚   More information of our business:- Out of the above services our business will take some kind of customer services and for the sake of our business we will take some promotional activities that would be auspicious for both for our business and our potential customers. As we will enter in the competition in the market our target is to survive in the market long run by satisfying our customers. Business model: As a new business we want to be unique in this field. Our business model will be unique as well. There is a lot of business model s prevailing in this kind of business. Each of these strategies will be dealt with in the context of providing advice for business wishing to maximise their cyber potential (Lawrence, 2000). The following business models are widely used in e -commerce business. Poster/ billboard models Online yellow model Cyber brochure Virtual Storefront Subscription model Advertising model 3.5.7 model Auction/ Reserve auction model Affiliation model and Portal model Strategy of implementation: Implementation of strategy is the challenge for all kind of business whether it is e -business or any other business. The size of the business will restrict will restrict the number of personnel involved in business but the discipline can be adapted for any business wishing to establish an electronic presence. To implement the model in the business there are some certain steps we will have to follow. Planning Controlling Monitoring Adjusting Organizing Managing quality etc. Customer service: For every business customer service is necessary. Like all other companies we also consider customer service as essential part of our business. We want to different in case of our customer service. It will include after services. Our expectation is to get feedback from our customer through online. They can inform their satisfactions or complain through online to our company. We will also provide repairing service to our customer. Creative promotional activities: Promotional activities are an important part of all business. Our promotional activities will have creativity that will differentiate our company from any other company. In our as the part of our promotional activity we will try to inform the people about the importance of technology, the good usage of technology, and we will try to inform people about the consequence of deforestation, pollution, illiteracy etc. It means our promotional activities will be a social promotional activity. Besides, as a normal promotional activities we will inform people by sending e-mail, advertise in some popular social network like face book, twitter etc. Building an internet commerce community: For all kind of business building an internet commerce community is helpful in ensuring the internet business. As it is important for business maximum usage of all business we will give focus on it. To build an international relationship we will also use technology. If we were an internet commerce community we would have the following objects. Internet banking: Now day internet banking is very popular as a medium of transaction. So as a medium of transaction we will operate our business transaction through internet banking. Our potential client will be able to get service through internet banking. For the interest of the security of our client it will be the best medium of transaction for those customers who will buy our product through online. Service selling site: Originally it seemed that cyber shopping mall would be the most effective way to get noted on the web. Large departmental stores have joined malls they have set their own sites. (Lawrence 2000). All retail shop have succeeded have thrived turning their customer into a community. For example Bookshop encourages community felling by getting people to write reviews of books they have read, by encouraging the buyer to interact with the authors via e mail and by getting register with eyes, as a service that that notifies customers of new books that are likely to interest them. (Lawrence 2000). As like that our business will have such kind of effort to encourage our customer and getting their feedback through online. Online publishing: Online publishing is an exciting area of internet commerce. By online we will inform our customer about our new product, product on sale etc.