Thursday, January 31, 2019
I wanna do everything with you. Like winning a trip for just us two. Ya get along along something along the lines of a two week cruise, and the alarm go off were pushin snooze. using up time together doing what ever you choose, doesnt re anyy matter as long as Im with you.          I wanna do things alike(p) strollin in the park a little after semidark. Youve lit my clear with just one spark.     I wanna lay beside you and watch as the stars inject out to play and I wanna look at you and not know what to say. Come over, dont leave stay and on the neighboring day I earth-closet kiss ya chest on which my drumhead lay,,, Ill rub ya back if thats okay, I mean,,,     I wanna do everything with you. Like stealin kisses underneath a moon so bright and nose close together in little or no light,      allows go to the beach and stand on the shore. Im just ge tting started I wanna do more.     Laugh and crack jokes as waves tinkle our feet. Lets taste exotic fruits with their flavors so sweet. And we can eat with our favorite tunes on repeat. Let me give you my heart its yours to keep.     I wanna go places with you that Ive never been. I wanna feel that deject down my spine that your touch can send. I just wanna get up and go and not know where or when. And when were all done we can do it all again.     I wanna resist temptation, and I wanna feel that tingling sensation. We can invent new things lets use our imaginations.     I wanna do everything with you. Like playin games that would dirty up our vestments and find out whats really at the end of a rainbow.     Givin red roses, white and yellow ones too. We can eat my favorite honey oil fruit under a sky so blue. Pink, purple and orange tree sunsets seem better with you.  &nbs p  I wanna get lost in your dark drown eyes. I wanna be there for every breath and every sigh.     I wanna sleep close together on those cold and angry nights and when it snows I wanna have a snowball fight.     I wanna catch a movie when it rains and every time its never the same.     I wanna do everything with you. Lt me kiss ya cheek and wear ya clothes.
Wednesday, January 30, 2019
I definitely conceive of the best things in manner are not free. There are so many examples I can name. For one, every thing you need in life you hand over to work hard to earn it. energy is given to you for free. Everything in life costs you or someone else money, time, or effort. This includes all the important things in life like air, freedom, life, living, love, children, marriage, jobs, and friendships. However, if we consider the means of free, "without cost of any kind to anyone at any time--past, present or future", it would be hard to find anything that is free. Every aspect of life carries some sort of commitment.Freedom is not free. In coiffure for this expectant country of ours to possess freedom that it offers, countless numbers of men and women conduct paid a high price to make it so. In outrank for us to go about freely in this great country, we have to follow certain guidelines or obedience of laws for the general welfare. If we insist on not doing so, eventually, our freedom will be lost and then place under guarded control.Life is not free. One has to commit to life. level off though a child is brought into this world through no ratiocination of his or her own, it costs someone to bring that child into this life, and it will move on cost for life to be maintained for that child. In addition, in order to live, one has to commit to the idea of living, at whatever standards they choose or their circumstances dictate.Living is not free. Life consists of many elements and th...
Runners come in all shapes and sizes. I devour seen 300-pound work force and women at the start of a race and in contrast the well-defined muscles of the elite smugglers. The reasons for precedening are as various as the manoeuvreners themselves. round operate on for slant lose, psychical or physical health, competition, and charity. There are m each physical health benefits for running Human bodies burn roughly 2,000-2,500 calories a day in normal activities. racetrack 5 miles a day ass burn an additional 500 calories. If this same shape holds true, a soulfulness completing a battle of Marathon exit ready burnt close to 2,600 calories.However, how fast a individual doesnt symbolize with how much weight they may loose while running. For example, a 220-pound person running an eight-minute mile burns 150 calories, while a 120-pound person running at the same pace burns only 82. all persons body requires an excess of 3,500 calories in company to compass a pound o r a deficit of 3,500 calories in order to lose a pound. Thus, 180-pound person who runs 5 miles each day entrust lose some 5 pounds a month. However, as his or her weight goes batch, he or she will burn someer calories per mile fit to a study conducted at Vanderbilt University.According to Runners gentleman editor Hal Higgdon. Running can also have many mental benefits. Most significantly runners typically report being happier and receiveing less(prenominal) stressed than their counterparts who do not run or exercise regularly. Running actually has the ability to alter an individuals moods because hormones called endorphins are released while running. These hormones create a sense of euphoria often referred to as a runners high and can result in an improvement in the runners mood. With these endorphins being released into the runners body, running can be very addictive.A man or woman can feel exchangeable theyve been turned into Michael Jordan and anything, even running 26 miles, is possible. Running a endurance contest and the distances to train are also almost spiritual. When I run I am able to solve my companies, personal, families, and the whole introductions problems. I have come up with some of the most life altering and affirming choices in the sunrise of an 8-mile run. Running is also a great stress relievo while running I am able to focus on the road and the miles as they build. I am able to forget about the office, family, or separate concerns. There are 26. reasons why a marathon is hard. To put this distance in perspective if you were to bring forth your car at 60 mph it would take a half an hour to drive that distance. But while running the marathon there is no down snip. Youre the machine, says physical therapist Jim Wharton of New York-based Wharton Performance, which trains world-class athletes. The debate about the impediment of the marathon, doesnt center just on the physical aspects. Motivation, confidence and mental toughnes s are necessary, says Stephen Russo, director of sports psychology at the University of Pittsburgh Medical marrow Health System.Running is painful its tedious, and exhausting. After a few miles our bodies scream for us to stop and rest. When the body screams stop that is when the mind takes everywhere and you keep running. Through my experiences in running and race competitions I can say a marathon is not something that can be exposit it is something must be experienced. In a marathon the participant will be competing against hundreds and in larger races thousands of other hopefuls. In many marathons cartridge holder restrictions are placed on which the marathon will end. -8 hours after the marathon has began, barricades will be removed and the race rout will be dismantled. If a runner is unable to finish in the allotted time the race officials may take them to the finish line and will not allowed to finish.However during those 6-8 hours a runner can run, jog, or walk any distan ce they want. When Khalid Khannouchi won the London Marathon last year, he didnt do any walking He set a world record of 2 hours, 5 minutes and 38 seconds. For elite athletes like Khannouchi distance running is a way of life. Marathoners seem either to be training or getting ready for the next workout. You wake up every morning and you know what you have to do. You have long gas mileage to accumulate. Sometimes youre already tired from your last two or three workouts. You still have to wake up, have the motivation and go outside and do the training. Khannouchi said. For me running is not simply about the weight loss or the constant inquires of family, friends, and co-workers who ask, How many mile(s) did you run today? When I run I am only accountable to my trusty stopwatch and myself.The marathon is my Everest. I will be back. Standing there with hundreds of other runners in tank tops and short on a frigidness fall morning, waiting for the starter pistol. I dont run for the med al or the crowd I run for me. I run despite the 9 times out of 10 it will hurt, just now I keep going. I run for that one time that it doesnt and I am able to finish my run and look down at my stop watch and be excited about a new personal best time, if only a few seconds. I run because I know it will hurt but I keep going and I wont give into the pain. I am an athlete. I am runner.
Tuesday, January 29, 2019
lamia movies always have lots of fans, and of course, Im a vampire film fan, similarly. In the past, vampires looked so scary they were old, extremely ugly, comes nothing scarce killing Nowadays, however, masses start to make vampires more human(and sometimes they are made level(p) better than human beings) They are so good-looking they have breath-taking faces, they have sexy figures they are immortal they wint die because they are too old, in former(a) words, they are undead.They still looked young even thought they are hundreds long time old they have so many superpowers they read minds, they move as fast as wind, they are unbelievably arduous. Now people even made vampires know more than rightful(prenominal) hunting equal animals they know romance as well, they will fall in love with like human do I think this skill be adept of the reasons why people love vampire movies that much because we find that our dreams (which tack to setheration never come legitimate in real life) come true in these movies. Reverse Psychology is often used on children, by dint of which parents permit their children to do something by telling them dont do this. This is because children are more likely to respond orders with reactance. In the movie let the right one in, when Eli and Oskar send-off met, Eli told Oskar I cant be your helpmate. But obviously, Oskar didnt have a gather in desire to make friends with Eli. Eli started stating a negative in order to get through her positive goal. And this is the use of reverse psychology.Based on the film notes, Elis intentions regard the function of Oskar is a replacement of Hakan. But even by and by reading the film notes, I still timbre that Elis supreme goal with Oskar is not just for finding individual to kill people and get blood for her. For me, Eli is just trying to have a friend who can keep her company. Its easy to tell that Elis carriage towards Oskar is totally different from that to Hakan, she car es about Oskar (at least for me it is). At the beginning I thought Hakan is the father of Eli, nevertheless later on I found hes more likely to be someone who helps Eli finding food.He might used to be Elis lover, entirely thats just a guess, because there might be another(prenominal) reasons why he chose to take care of Eli. For example, he might be the one who cause Elis changing into a vampire, he feel guilty so that he chose to stay with her. According to the notes, at first Eli tried to sense Oskar as a potential serial killer, then(prenominal) she took control of Oskars self-imageAssume that Eli is a pedophile, she might keep Oskar, a young boy with her and replace Hakan, whos no longer effective to her.In this film, the uncanny ability is shown to audiences over and over again, and it presents that love is just an excuse, which is used to disguise the subliminal reality of objectification and exploitation. By looking at the way Oskar dresses and behavior, we can tell tha t Oskar is an effeminate personality in this movie. I think thats why the boys enjoy making fun of him. I thought that the reason why Oskar didnt ever fight back end is because he is so cowardice that hes afraid that they might hit him harder if he fights back.But the note assumes that Oskar is actually sublimating his unconscious familiar attraction by allowing himself to be victimized. I think that because the group of grownup boys always attacked Oskar and he couldnt get any help from someone else, so he was mentally ill already. He had a strong desire of revenging but he didnt have the courage to do so. He wants to kill people if it is allowed. Just because he knows that he cannot do it, he transferred his inner desire of killing to collecting the newspaper clippings on murder. I think his too cowardice.When I first watched this movie and cut Eli asked Oskar to teach her how to play the Rubriks blocking, I didnt think too much about this. But after reading the notes, it sho ws me that Rubriks cube might be one of the tools Eli use to achieve her subterfuge (which is to get close to Oskar). I think because Eli is a vampire who cannot live without crapulence humans blood, so its better for her to live in a lower class apartment so that she wont catch peoples attention, otherwise she will get into smother so easily. In a telling scene, we saw Elis rude(a) groin with a horizontal suture, which means Eli was a boy but castrated by someone.
Monday, January 28, 2019
The best estimate for 2006 are shown in the projections for alignment Concrete. The c completelyer-out is expected to grow its Net Income by $2,350 million. If the c each(prenominal)er-out was to founder $3 million in dividends, it would be $11,349 million in retained earnings. If you film no enthronisation in capital expenditure and make payments to your bank loan, the loan would come down to $57,660 million. If the confederation does non re habilitate, it exit be at a 50% chance of a line of work occurring, which can cause more than losses. Just as they did in 2004, non only did it cost $2.6 million to fix the line of work but in addition the follow had to close down for 2 weeks, hence the drop in sales for 2004. My recommendation to Alliance Concrete would be to pay impinge on the $7,000 million obligation to the bank which is owed. This would be suggested so you do not default on a loan. It would also put you at the acceptation limit as well. If the company do es default on the loan, it impart not be a good look for the company. Stock prices and confidence in the company will drop, as people will think that the company cannot pay its bill.After paying off the debt to the bank, I would suggest to portion the rest of the money towards capital expenditure. It will be necessary for the company to upgrade at least some of the equipment to lower the possibility of something red ink bad. It would be a total nightmare if the company ran into another problem like the one they faced in 2004, and it may lead to bankruptcy. They may not be able to recover because their debt would go through the roof. That be said, I would cross on the dividend payments and insure that the following year on that point will be a bigger payment to the stockholder, if everything goes well. The investment into the company would make the company operate better and may even break more revenue.If I was to renegotiate with the bank, I would put earlier the projectio n of growth. I would highlight the increase in sales and revenue on with showing the effort to pay down the banks loans. I would put forward the current and quick ratio, showing that we have enough money to cop the assets to cover our debt in worst case scenario. The company can postulate that, even though the real estate market is slowing down, the company is still showing growth, which is a good sign.If Alliance Concrete was to skip on dividend payments the argument that can be put forth would be that the company is growing and shows signs of great improvement, if we put money into it now. Also that, investment now in the company could mean even more dividend payments in the future. We could also argue that it needs to be skipped because the company needs to put back money into itself because we need to seduce repairs done. If we pay dividends now, it may not be the best for the company, because we will not be able to get the repairs done that are needed and will cost us m ore to fix and recover from that problem.After carefully looking at all aspects and possible situations I would suggest that the company skip on the dividends for this year, and invest its money back into the company along with paying of some of the debt. This will be beneficial for all. It will make the company grow all with paying of its loans. The stockholders can be assured that the company is growing and that there will be better dividend payments in the future.
Sunday, January 27, 2019
The profit has recently occasion the object of detailed research. This research is being conducted in legion(predicate) beas of science, including politics. The claims that net threatens the tycoon of brass be becoming too popular to ignore them this is wherefore it get out be interesting to train these make loves once again, and to objectively evaluate whether such claims have any grounds. Thesis line the power of the cyberspace does not challenge the power of judicature, scarce on the contrary, forms favorable conditions for promoting the governmental policies and political positions.The question of the lucre power and its contingent impress on the power of physical governments is directly attached with the definition of earnings, its current functions, development, and opportunities which it provides to its users. The direct connection of lucre and globalization processes is viewed as the major challenge to the power of governments all over the world. This political position whitethorn seem correct and grounded at first glance. Going deeper into the liberate, one will find certain misunderstandings and misconceptions, which tinge to what real role Internet plays today.Lessig (2000) writes somewhat Internet as the structure of norms, the power of which git be strengthen or disabled by its users. He emphasizes the fact that earnings is an architecture first. It is a platform that gets designed. It is constituted by a striation of autograph by softw atomic number 18 and ironware that makes cyberspace as it is (Lessig 4). First, if the net profit is a mere architecture, governed by the software and hardware, why do politicians raise the issue of Internet thought-provoking the power of governments? It is precisely possible to imagine, that any hardware could challenge the power of any government in the world.Simultaneously, if the issue is relevant, the Internet cannot be called mere architecture (Lessig 4). It intends that the current state of the Internet is something more than architecture. Possibly, it is the set of communicational, social, and other norms which allow the Internet users impact (or not impact) the power of government and other political structures. Thus, Lessigs statement contradicts itself provided deserves attention within the framework of the current interchange. Farrel (2006) discussed the issues of the Internet political impact in connection with the globalization processes.Globalization, and in particular the rapid gain in the flows of financial resources and information across the borders, has important consequences both for indemnity interdependence and for the role of the state (p. 354). While did the dissemination of cross-borders in the Cyberspace lead to the un agreeled spreading of gambling, pornography, extremist political material, about which Farrell wrote, and how did this relate to the power of government? If the dissemination of cross-borders in the Cyb erspace has become un projectlable, does it mean that government is too weak to invent effective measures of such overlook?I would assume that the physical weakness of state governments and state policies to impute the Cyberspace under control is more relevant in this discussion in that location is no challenge to the power of government. Moreover, it is only partially a challenge to governments power those who view the Internet as the challenge to the political power of the government tend to admit its weakness. However, the military post is better to be described as follows the power of the Cyberspace creates bare-ass conditions for the world governments to exercise their power and to invent new instruments of power.The only chore is that governments do not yet understand, how the Cyberspace issues should be addressed, but hopefully, it is the enumerate of time. The challenge, about which cyber libertarians tend to speak, should not be addressed as the variant to neutraliz e the power of government. This challenge should be equaled to the opportunity, which government should properly address in order to retain its power and to spread its control onto the Cyberspace, too. The Internet has initially been designed as a technology that would be disgusting to centralized control (Boas 8).The absence of the centralized control was always connected with the already mentioned dissemination of the cross-borders in the Cyberspace (Farrell 354). This is why cyber libertarians discipline to move the public that the Internet challenges the power of government. Lets view the issue through a different prism. In our transnationally linked and globally coordinated world, both borders, and the attendant sharp distinction between the domesticated and the foreign, are again losing meaning. In an interdependent global economy, basic issues such as unemployment and income inequality are no longer domestic problems subject to domestic solutions.Once more, it is far fro m clear, who is independent and who is not (Kobrin 10). The argument to which cyber libertarians relate in their argument is rather weak in the light of the numerous supranational agreements, which regulate the globalization processes in the physical world. The bright examples of the international agreements (the GATT, the WTO, and the EU) create favorable conditions to assume that the Cyberspace can also be subjected to such agreements and regulations, if properly addressed by governments and other international organizations.Obviously, there is no challenge to the power of government but again, it is the vast area of opportunities to create a powerful set of political and legal norms to control the Cyberspace users behavior. The issue of territory and the elimination of geographical borders in the Internet can easily be compromised by the creation of international agreements and regulatory bodies. such(prenominal) step will only prove the power of international governments. Stati ng that the Internet challenges the power of the Government is rather weak due to the inherent equivocalness of the power in general (Kobrin 15).In order to speak how and why the Cyberspace challenges the power of government, one should primarily determine what he (she) substance under the word power does it imply the possibility to tax the trading operations taking place within the e-commerce space, or the possibility to regulate and control the spreading of the extremist political information in the Cyberspace? The Ukraine throw demonstrates that, under certain circumstances, online activists can affect politics in regimes where there us no thriving independent media sector.For starters, activist websites can become an alternative source of news and commentary in countries where traditional media are under state control. (Drezner 3) Evidently, the discussion of the Internet creating challenges to the power of government can be held only within the environment, where the public trusts the blogs more than it trusts its possess government. The political events in Ukraine, Georgia and other countries are the evidence of the governments weakness and public mistrust.In these conditions not only the Internet, but any other instrument may serve the means of ever-changing the political regime or challenging the governments power. The Internet in these states challenges the power of the government due to the fact, that the government itself is incapable of government activity numerous issues in the nations civil reality. The Cyberspace is viewed as the attempt to change the existing social conditions, but again, challenging the power which does not exist or is underdeveloped in the state is hardly possible.In the developed states, the self-regulation of the Cyberspace is far from being a challenge to the power of government. On the contrary, it is the means of aligning the needs and goals of the nation with its scientific advancement. It has been mentioned, tha t the Internet is the vast area of opportunities for the national governments to create a set of norms and regulations, similar to the WTO and the GATT in the physical world.It is difficult not to agree to Farrell, that undercover actors are increasingly serving the channels of influence, or the proxies for states. In other words, private actors are not creating self-regulatory realms that are outside the reach of states. Instead, they are increasingly coming to serve as vectors of state influence (p. 16). In the countries, where the power of government is sufficient for the public to trust it and to respect it, the Internet cannot but serve the means of promoting the state political, social, cultural and economic positions.Moreover, the direct of self-regulation in these states is surprisingly aligned with the high degree of governmental control towards the Cyberspace users behavior. The U. S. policy was initially aimed at providing the Internet users with the opportunities for s elf-regulation. This opportunity was neer anticipated to challenge any state authority and was a purpose-built step of the governmental structures. When the governmental authority is supposed to be challenged by the Cyberspace, such claims are at least misleading.As long as they are connected with the self-regulation of the Internet, they are easily denied the self-regulation of the Cyberspace is gradually vanish and is being replaced by the limits both democratic and non-democratic governments set onto the private actors and the objects they try to access (Farrell 16). This is why, the current political conditions and the current (surely, powerful) position of the Internet does not allow stating that the Cyberspace challenges the power of government.Conclusion The issue of the Cyberspace challenging the power of the Government should be objectively considered. At first glance, these claims may seem relevant, but obviously, the Cyberspace cannot challenge the power of Government for the pursuit reasons 1. In powerful developed democratic societies the Government possesses efficient methods of modulate the Cyberspace individuals the Internet is viewed as the means of promoting the influence of the Government, and not challenging it. 2.In underdeveloped and young states the Internet seems to challenge the centralized power, when existence views it as an alternative and more reliable source of information. However, such built in bed is the proof of the governments weakness and the underdevelopment of the state power as such definitely, the Internet cannot challenge something that does not exist or is at the initial stage of its development. Works cited Boas, T. C. Weaving the Authoritarian Web The laterality of Internet Use in Non-Democratic Regimes. University of California, Berkeley, 2005.Drezner, D. W. Weighing the Scales the Internets action on State-Society Relations. University of Chicago, 2005. Farrell, H. Regulating Information Flows States, Priv ate Actors, and E-Commerce. Annu. Rev. Polit. Sci. 9 (2006) 353-74. Farrel, H. The Political prudence of the Internet and E-Commerce. Draft Book Chapter. Kobrin, S. J. Neomedivalism and the Postmodern Digital World parsimony. The Journal of International Affairs, Spring (1998) 361-86. Lessig, L. Architecting for Control. Lecture Given at the demonstrate for Human Sciences, Vienna, AS, 2000.
Saturday, January 26, 2019
The non-proliferation pact Its establishment, Issues, and Current Status On a nonwithstanding 21, 1963, chairwoman John Kennedy warned in a press host, I see the surmise in the 1970s of the president of the linked States having to face a macrocosm in which 15 or 20 or 25 nations whitethorn feed atomic tools. I regard that as the grea interrogation executable danger and hazard. Kennedy made this acresment a month subsequent a out of sight De cut offment of Defense memorandum assessed that eight countries Canada, mainland China, India, Israel, Italy, Japan, Sweden, and westward Germ both would in whole probability stool the ability to produce thermo thermo thermo atomic weapons within the next 10 geezerhood after 1963.It was further assessed that beyond those 10 years, the future be of nuclear weapons programs would decrease and permit way for salwaysal more postulates to take nuclear weapons, especially if unrestricted testing continued. Fear of the spread o f nuclear weapons to vast nation states and superpowers including their array and ideological allies is what urged the creation of the Non-Proliferation treaty (NPT). Signed on July 1, 1968 and actually implemented on March 5, 1970, the NPT is a result of a compilation of efforts at enforcing international non-proliferation.With electric chair Dwight D. Eisenhower duty for a refreshing international agency to sh be nuclear sensibles and information for peaceful purposes with separate countries in his Atoms for Peace address to the UN ecumenical Assembly on December 1953, the way was made for the Non-Proliferation Treaty to come into existence when the UN established The International Atomic heftiness part (IAEA) on July 29, 1957 as result of negotiations sparked from Eisenhowers proposal.President Dwight Eisenhower proposed to the UN customary Assembly the negotiation of a conformity that would seek to chequer nuclear activities around the demesne and prevent, if possi ble, the spread of nuclear weapons to additional countries. However, President Eisenhowers speech to the UN ecumenical Assembly came after the failure of primitively U. S. nonproliferation efforts. When the United States stood as the only true nuclear power in the world at the end of World War II, President Harry Truman proposed to enter the U. S. uclear inventory if different countries would agree not to acquire nuclear weapons and would permit inspections to drift that agreement. This proposal was presented as the Baruch Plan in 1946 and implied that the United States turn oer control of all its enriched uranium, including that in any nuclear weapons it had, to a new UN body over which the United States and the other permanent members of the warranter Council would present a veto. In addition to already seeking its own nuclear weapons, the Soviets rejected this plan on the grounds that the United Nations was dominated by the United States and its allies in Western Europe.T herefore, the Soviets argued it could not be rely to exercise authority over atomic weaponry in a fair manner. They proposed that America eliminate its nuclear weapons sooner considering proposals for a ashes of controls and inspections. On the other hand, the United States, would not surrender its weapons to the agency until inspectors were on duty in the Soviet fraternity and in other countries with nuclear potential (Bellany 1985). With the Baruch Plan not going as planned, the U. S.Congress enacted the 1946 Atomic Energy Act which encompassed provisions de fooled to keep nuclear technology secret from other countries exactly then was amended to authorize nuclear service to others alike the IAEA which was created to provide both assistance and inspectors for peaceful nuclear activities after Eisenhower proposed providing assistance to other countries in the peaceful personas of atomic expertness. The United States, followed by the Soviet Union, France, and others began pr oviding research reactors that used weapons-usable highly enriched uranium to non-nuclear-weapon states around the world.These transfers and the train that accompanied the reactors helped scientists in some countries learn about nuclear nuclear fission and its potential uses other than in good measure. As these scientists became more informal in the uses of nuclear energy through the resources being provided to them, global clog increased for controlling the spread of the new technology in fellowship to prevent its use for weapons. This led to Ireland proposing the low gear resolution at the United Nations on October 17, 1958 to prohibit the further dissemination of nuclear weapons.On March 21, 1963, the UN General Assembly unanimously approved Resolution 1665, based on the earlier Irish draft resolution, reads that countries already having nuclear weapons would to a lower placetake to refrain from give up control of them to others and would refrain from convey information for their manufacture to states not possessing them. In addition, countries without nuclear weapons would agree not to receive or manufacture them. These ideas obtain the basis of the NPT (Bunn 2008).The United States then took another step toward non-proliferation and submitted a simple draft conformity of the NPT based on the resolution to the Soviet Union when a new eighteen nation Disarmament assembly opened in Geneva in 1962. Adversely, the Soviet response insisted that the agreement prohibit the arrangements between the United States and NATO allies such as West Germany for deployment in their countries of U. S. nuclear weapons nether the control of U. S. soldiers.The stated purposes of these weapons were to protect these countries if ever in the event of an attack on them by the Soviet Union and its allies. The U. S. also proposed for implementation of a multilateral strong point in which would be a slip by of submarines and warships each manned by international NATO crews and arm with multiple nuclear armed Polaris ballistic missiles. The proposal was animate by the complaints of NATO countries which voiced that the nuclear defense of Europe was beholden to the Americans, who held the good deal of nuclear ability.Instead of an array of different independent forces ultimately acting under their own domestic banners on the waters, the result would be a fleet of warships manned and operated by general NATO command in broader cooperative efforts nevertheless the Soviets opposed to this. Later, a compromise was reached where US eventually gave up on efforts toward the multilateral force and the Soviets gave up on a prohibition against U. S. deployment of nuclear weapons in West Germany and other allied countries under the condition the provided weapons remained under sole control of U.S. personnel (Bellany 1985). On June 12, 1968 The UN General Assembly adopt Resolution 2373 which endorsed the draft text of the nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty. The vote was 95 to 4 with 21 abstentions. The four no votes were Albania, Cuba, Tanzania, and Zambia. The pact was signed by the Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and the United States. Article IX of the conformity established that foundation into force would require the treatys ratification by those terce countries and 40 additional states.It was by this time, five nations had developed a nuclear weapons capability the United States, the Soviet Union, Britain, France, and China. On February 13, 1960, France conducted its first nuclear test explosion, establishing it as the the worlds fourth nuclear armed state after the United States, the Soviet Union, and the United Kingdom. Then China conducted its first nuclear test explosion on October 16, 1964 placing it as the worlds fifth nuclear armed state and leading to the acceleration of Indias nuclear program ( Bunn 2008).China and France were spotd as nuclear-weapon states under the treaty scarce did not sign it. China argued the t reaty was discriminatory and simply refused to hold fast to it. On the other hand, France implied that it would not sign the treaty but would stockpile in the future in this field exactly as the states adhering to the Treaty. The treaty distinguishes between obligations of two parties such as nuclear-weapon states who are defined as those states parties which exploded a nuclear device prior to January 1, 1967 and non-nuclear weapon states which are all other states.The treaty called prohibition on non-nuclear-weapon states from having nuclear weapons and called for the IAEA to be permitted to carry out inspections to guarantee that their nuclear programs were limited to peaceful uses. In particular, the resolution asked the countries possessing nuclear weapons to refrain from relinquishing control of nuclear weapons and from transmitting information necessary for their manufacture to nations not possessing nuclear weapons.Second, it recommended that states not possessing nuclear w eapons, undertake not to manufacture or otherwise acquire control of such weapons. In addition, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and the United States agreed to provide assistance to non-nuclear weapon NPT members in their pursuit of peaceful uses of nuclear energy and agreed to conduct future negotiations to halt the nuclear arms buildup and concentrate their nuclear weapons with a goal of achieving nuclear disarmament.Negotiations then raised aiming efforts towards gaining bridal of these provisions by important non-nuclear weapon governments and their parliaments along for the allowance of the inspections that would be conducted by the IAEA in accordance to the NPT. India was one of these non-nuclear weapon governments of interest but despite untold active participation in the NPT negotiation, it refused to join because it wanted to retain the option to produce its own nuclear weapon as its adversary then, China had. Also, Pakistan which was another adversary of India r efused to join because India would not.Israel, which the United States had essay to restrain from acquiring nuclear weapons in separate negotiations during the 1960s, also refused to join. China and France didnt participate much in the NPT negotiations but had acquired nuclear weapons before its negotiation was completed. The NPT draft permitted them to join the treaty with the same rights and duties as the other nuclear-weapon states when they eventually did accede to the treaty in 1992 (Bunn 2008). The practice of inspections for non-nuclear weapon parties weighed as a study(ip) concern in the egotiations at the IAEA for several years and many countries including West European allies of the United States did not formalize the treaty until these negotiations were completed to their satisfaction. Till this day, this concern is steady a force per unit area matter at hand. In its establishment, Article X of the NPT called for a convocation of its parties to be held 25 years afte r the treatys introduction into force in 1970 to determine whether the treaty would remain in force indefinitely or for other additional periods of time.This conclave was held on may 11, 1995 and began with much uncertainty regarding the nature of any character reference. Leading up to this, parties of the treaty enacted review conferences every five years to revise the treaty fit to the current state of nuclear arms at the time. During the 1995 review conference, non-nuclear weapon states expressed disappointment with the lack of progress toward nuclear disarmament and feared that extending the treaty indefinitely would enable the nuclear-armed states to hold on to their nuclear arsenals and disregard any accountability in eliminating them.In a different light, Indonesia and mho Africa proposed efforts to tying the treatys indefinite extension to a decision to strengthen the treaty review process such as establishing of a set of principles and objectives on nuclear nonprolife ration and disarmament to hold NPT states-parties, particularly the nuclear-weapon states, accountable to their commitments.Indonesia and South Africas proposal included completion of the Comprehensive Test toss away Treaty of 1996 which banned all nuclear explosions in all environments for military or civilian purposes along with negotiations on the cutoff of fissile bodily production for weapons purposes. The conference also adopted a resolution calling for establishment of a zone free of weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East with the goal to win support for the indefinite NPT extension from Arab states which objected to Israels status outside the NPT and its assumed possession of nuclear weapons.During the 1955 edict conference of the NPT, the decision was made to extend the NPT indefinitely and with its last revision conference held in 2010, is still on its mission to global non-proliferation (Gunter 2010). The NPT consists of a preamble and eleven articles and is i nterpreted as a troika part pillar system as non-proliferation being the first, disarmament the second, and the right to peacefully use nuclear technology as the third. soon there are 189 countries as state parties under rovisions of the nuclear non-proliferation Treaty. The major come outs that the Treaty of Nuclear Non Proliferation is facing are loopholes in NPT admital, non-compliance with state parties, particularly Iran, and in a safeguard system. Also, the future utility of the treaty will be dominated by its ability to attract the major non-parties into membership. Another flaw in the Treaty is that if diversion of fissile material is discovered, then no mechanism for sanctions exists other than taking the issue to the UN tribute Council.The treaty is silent on how to deal with a situation where a non-nuclear weapon state acquires unsafeguarded weapon material for reasons not permitted under the Treaty (Kaplan 2005). Israel regarded NPT adherence and the IAEA safeguard s system as an insufficient guarantee that Iraq would not use nuclear technology it was acquiring to make nuclear weapons and proceed to destroy that technology. This discouraged other Arab states from becoming NPT parties, as this appeared to offer no earnest measure against unilateral Israeli action.With the notion that one state such as Israel could claim the NPT technically meaningless and allowed to act on that belief without sanction, the believability of the Treaty in the eyes of many non-nuclear weapon states became undermined and brought up for much speculation. The NPT itself is silent on how to assess compliance, how to resolve compliance disputes, and what procedures to follow in the event of non-compliance. Specifically, there is no verification of the obligations in Articles I and II not to transfer or receive nuclear weapons.The treaty contains no language on verification other than to require states to accept nuclear safeguards in Article III. One precedent for han dling non-compliance was in the national of North Korea. North Korea announced it would withdraw from the NPT on March 12, 1993 but suspended its disengagement in June. Ten years later on February 12, 2003, the Board of Governors declared North Korea in non-compliance with its nuclear safeguards obligations, and referred the matter to the Security Council. The Board called upon North Korea to acknowledge its non-compliance, and fully cooperate with the Agency.North Korea stated it would withdraw from the NPT on January 11, 2003, and its official status is still uncertain. The legality of North Koreas withdrawal is debatable but as of 9 October 2006, North Korea clearly possesses the capability to make a nuclear explosive device. However, other states complain of U. S. disobedience because the United States continues to conduct research and development new types of nuclear weapons and still has yet to accept much deeper reductions in its nuclear forces.several(prenominal) additiona l measures have been adopted to strengthen the NPT with attempts to broader the nuclear nonproliferation regime and make it operose for states to acquire the capability to produce nuclear weapons, including the export controls of the Nuclear Suppliers assembly and the enhanced verification measures of the IAEA Additional Protocol. However, critics argue that the NPT cannot stop the proliferation of nuclear weapons or the motivation to acquire them.They express disappointment with the limited progress on nuclear disarmament, where the five authorized nuclear weapons states still have 22,000 warheads in their combined stockpile and have shown a reluctance to disarm further. Several high-ranking officials within the United Nations have said that they can do little to stop states using nuclear reactors to produce nuclear weapons (Kaplan 2005). An issue that will require new and better strategic thinking is how better(p) to proceed with efforts to make the Middle East a Weapons of Mas s death (WMD) free zone.This was a controversial issue on the table during the just about recent 2010 NPT brush up Conference. The final document produced from the conference addressing the matter calls on all states in the region to participate in a conference in 2012 based on the terms of the 1995 resolution. The United States announced after the conference that it, Russia, and the United Kingdom, along with the UN secretary-general, will co-sponsor the meeting, determine a farming to host it, and identify a person to organize it.The issue with this is that Egypt and other states may want to use a conference in part to criticize Israels nuclear weapons program. Also, the language of the document calls on all states in the Middle East to participate which includes a number of states that do not recognize Israel and in the past have not been spontaneous to sit with Israeli officials in formal settings. To name a few, Iran, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, and Syria are some of these st ates. Therefore, such a conference would pose challenges to Israel. Iran and major Arab states would all have to reach the same satisfying terms and recognize Israeli de facto.If the conference is viewed strategically and handled carefully, it could advance the cause of peace and security in the region. In summation, President Barack Obama in Prague called for the peace and security of a world free of nuclear weapons on April 2, 2009. A Year later on April 8, 2010, President Obama returned to Prague a year later with President Dmitri Medvedev of Russia to sign a new Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty that commit both countries to reduce their deployed strategic nuclear warheads and delivery systems in accordance with agreed principles of verification.President Obama also convened a special session of the UN Security Council on September 24, 2009, which adopted Resolution 1887, which focuses on nuclear security and nonproliferation and seeking ways to enhance its means. Though the NPT has its weaknesses, it still has managed to link many countries together and has dodged the predicted amount 15 or 20 or 25 nations may have nuclear weapons that President Kennedy warned in his press conference in 1963.Today, we have nine counting North Korea but not Iran outside of the treaty. As we progress down the road to expanding non-proliferation, it is important for indemnity makers to keep in mind that for most states the demand for nuclear weapons is belike to derive from security considerations, and security consideration under conditions of uncertainty, especially if the states have lacking faith in the Treatys ability to make effective use of the safeguard system as we approach the 2015 NPT Review Conference.
Friday, January 25, 2019
Designed to be outstanding in any field, from city streets to music festivals and rugged countryside, hunting watch footwear is recognized for its performance durability and comfort achieved through a fusion of tradition and technology (hunter hot flash Ltd. , 2013) hunting watch surge Ltd. was founded in 1856, styled as the North British Rubber Company, producing not that good-for-nothing boots but also tyres, conveyors and flooring. The famous wellies or wellington boots rose to fame when they were fabricate during World War I to supply the army.By the end of the war wellies had force popular for use among the general population as well. After ever-changing ownership several times hunting watch Rubber Company became a standalone party in 2004, and was bought out of administration as Hunter belt Ltd. in 2006. Now solely focusing on footwear, the go with has since positioned itself hard and both the UK and ground forces footwear markets. In 2008 Hunter closed its base of 96 years and relocated its headquarters to Edinburgh (Scotland) and convergenceion to China.Striving for more competency and effectiveness in the production process Hunter boots argon barely still visually similar to its original design, whereas they have in point be have a go at it virtually identical to the boots produced by its competitors. Nevertheless Hunter has undergo a period of considerable yield and is at one time distributed planetaryly in over 30 countries (Hunter Boot Ltd. , 2013). The author feels that is important to make a clear distinction between the years up to 2006, which is the year Hunter Boot Ltd. was placed into admission, and the years 2007 and onwards to where Hunter Boot Ltd. s currently controlled by Search motiveless Capital Partners LP (SCP). , which is a private investment unwavering operating in North America and Europe. First this paper pull up stakes analyse the rise, and demise, of the company and then volition shed some light on i ts resurgence in popularity and turn-around sales in novel years (Paton 2011). According to Porter (1991) sustainable competitive usefulness in inter national personal credit line is determined by the four factors that form the diamond of national improvement factor conditions, demand conditions, related and supporting industries and firm strategy, grammatical construction and rivalry. The factors are nterdependent and all are essential for achieving (international) mastery. The application of this framework sure enough holds true for Hunter Boot Ltd. s (international) triumph from its founding years to the early 2000s. Diamond of guinea pig Advantage Hunter Boot Ltd. 1856 2006 sexual intercourse level of splendour reckon Conditions Dumfries production imbed, skilled labor and ample infrastructure. heights Importance Demand Conditions Wet weather conditions make fit footwear a necessity. Army supplier during both WWI and WWII. Loyal customer ranging from the Brit ish Royal Family to general population. High Importance Related & Supporting Industries Close working relationships with suppliers and end-users within national boundary. Medium Importance Firm Strategy, Structure and Rivalry Ability to manage vast growth in both production and labor force. Ambitious management strategy. High Importance Table 1 Porters Diamond of National Advantage applied to Hunter Boot Ltd. 1856-2006 The companys disdain became inevitably clear in the years 2003-2005 when it recorded a pre-tas prejudice of approximately ? 700,000 with a net debt that had grown to more than ? 2m. These perils can be explained by two of Porters factors.Firstly the companys Factor Conditions, mainly its production plant, compoundd from major strength to major weakness. The muddle and facilities that helped transport to company to greatness during the war became hopelessly outdated in later(prenominal) years leading to relatively high costs of stressful to strain its Scotl and production. Lower production costs abroad, due to surges in gas, electricity and safe prices in the UK, and the overall British manufacturing decline made Hunter Boot Ltds ambitions to remain an independent producer based in Scotland unsustainable ( monetary time 2006).Also blamed in the process was the companys CEO fall guy Sater, which relates to Porters factor on firm strategy, structure and rivalry, who chose to accompany a diversification strategy in that under his rule the product range was extended extensively in an effort to boost sales. The company even added a range of branded clothing and partnered with charities and fashion designers. With the antecedently mentioned financial situation the company was forced to consider external business proposals in an effort to keep the company afloat.Driving the following negotiations were the companys demand conditions which were clearly articulated by an anonymous insider in the fiscal Times (2006) as anyone who hunts or fis hes and has a few quid fancies themselves as the next owner. It is so close to the hearts of so many hoi polloi it is almost owned by the nation. None of the offers gained sufficient support of the add-in and the company collapsed in the spring of 2006. In several consecutive constructions Hunter Boot Ltd. Generated sales of ? 56m in 2010 and ? 78 in 2011 which is a knockout financial improvement and turnaround from its pre-tax losses in 2005.Since early 2012 the company is under control of American-owned private equity group SCP which is pursuing world(a) expansion. This makes Hunter Boot Ltd. one of many luxury brand buy-outs by private equity groups the like of SCP in recent times. SCP has announced that it will try to set up stores selling the Hunter brand altogether across the globe in the coming years. This is a major change in its international strategy since Hunter products are currently sell exclusively via wholesale retail channels (Paton 2011&2012).Despite the many changes in ownership Hunter product are still clearly trying to hang on its British heritage in a doubled effort to maintain its loyal UK customer base and to differentiate itself from its competitors. As an example the company has two different website interfaces, one for UK customers and one for USA customers. Both emphasize the exclusivity and craftsmanship of the product, but the UK website further emphasizes its heritage by portraying the British flag and colors clearly on each opportunity. From a theoretical perspective one could argue that Hunter Boot Ltd. s current (international) business strategy can no durable be sufficiently explained by Porters Diamond model, and now bears more resemblance to Barneys VRIO model which is a re base-based view pore on the firms privileged capabilities (Barney 1991). The resource-based view argues international success stems from the theory that some firms in one nation generate exports that are valuable (V), unique (R), hard to imit ate (I) and supported by organizationally sound processes (O) which firms from other nations find beneficial to import.A valuable resource will lead to competitive parity, a valuable and rare resource to improvised competitive advantage, the addition of inimitability will lead to uphold (short-term) competitive advantage and meeting all VRIO-criteria will lead to (long-term) sustainable competitive advantage (Shahriari, M. & Ahmadi, A. , 2010). While companies may have many tangible and nonphysical resources only few of them are strategical in nature. Most strategic resources are of the created and nonphysical kind and often knowledge-based, yet they can only be facilitated with the help of tangible resources.This mix is what enables a company to go away past competitive convergence and into competitive advantage (Shariari et al. 2010 and Barney 1991). Globalization has moved(p) Hunters home-based competitive advantages in that in a international economy there has been a shift from natural assets (land and untrained labor) to created assets (human capital). many another(prenominal) of these created assets are intangible and firm or ownership specific which hateful they are often no longer controlled by specific countries or governments except within the constraints of the (national) law. Multinational firms (MNEs) like Hunter Boot Ltd. re free to move assets from a domestic to a foreign location which is often done when trying to pursue and generate new valuable assets (Dunning, J. H. , 1993). This opportunity is exactly what the company pursued when it moved its production plant to China while maintaining its HQ in Scotland. It is the companys intangible or created asset of reputation that currently yields it with a long-term sustained competitive advantage over its competitors. Its constant customer focus and technical capabilities are a close second but do not withstand a long-term orientation to a similar extent.This is oddly true for Hunter Boot Ltd. s technological capability since the recent move of its production facilities and cost-cutting strategy has made the company more endangered to imitation by competitors. Recently Hunter Boot Ltd. has been enjoying great success and it will have to prove if this is sustainable or not. It will come down to the following question Is the companys gaining in internal capabilities and resources enough to make up for the loss of its national advantages?The author states that it is vital for the company to uphold its reputation since this is currently the single sustainable source of competitive advantage and not one that cannot be affected. It might be that the company will lose some of its loyal (mainly UK) customers and gain a large number of mass-market global customers, but it is doubtful this will provide long-term success if the company is not able to differentiate itself sufficiently from its competitors in the near future. Bibliography BARNEY, J. , 1991.Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of management, 17(1), pp. 99-120. DUNNING, J. H. , 1993. outside(a)izing Porters Diamond. MIR Management International Review, 33 (Extensions of the Porter Diamond Framework), pp. 7-15. FINANCIAL TIMES, 2006, Future far from shining for Britains wellies, viewed on 28th of February 2013 http//www. ft. com/intl/cms/s/0/628795c2-cbd4-11da-a7bf-0000779e2340. htmlaxzz2MYTEnuR hunting watch BOOT LTD, 2013, viewed on 4th of March 2013 http//www. hunter-boot. com/about-us PATON, E. 2010, Luxury industry movers and shakers, Financial Times, viewed on 1st of March 2013 http//www. ft. com/cms/s/0/0f2e5894-1c62-11e2-ba75-00144feabdc0. html PATON, E. , 2011, Hunter boots to pursue international growth, Financial Times, viewed on 28th of February 2013 http//www. ft. com/intl/cms/s/0/4846403a-2800-11e1-a4c4-00144feabdc0. htmlaxzz2MYTEnuRw PORTER, M. E. , 1998,Competitive advantage of nations,Free press. SHAHRIARI, M. and AHMADI, A. , 2010, A Resourc e-Based Framework of strategical Marketing Planning to achieve Sustainable Competitive Advantage, pp. 1-13.
Wednesday, January 23, 2019
ASSIGNMENTS hebdomadly Point Values ASSIGNMENTS Due Points Individual (70%) rudiments of Macro sparings musical theme week 2 15 federal diffidence foundation Week 4 15 Inter soilal deal out wind and Finance dustup Week 5 10 Final Examination Week 5 15 Participation (3 points/class) All 15 Student End of contour Surveys (SEOCS) Week 4-5 breeding group (30%) attainment Team Charter Week 2 hebdomadary reflectivity Week 2 3 add up Demand and confer Models Week 3 14 Weekly verbalism Week 3 3 Weekly Reflection Week 4 3 Fiscal insurance Paper Week 5 7 Learning Team Evaluation Week 5 Total blow Week atomic number 53 Fundamentals of Macroeconomics expatiate Due Points Objectives apologize the economic interaction of resources among households, government activity, and business. mention gross domestic product, inflation identify, unemployment rate, and affair rate. station sources of historical economic data and economic forecas ts. read picture Ch. 1 of Macroeconomics. claiming present Ch. 2 of Macroeconomics. interpret Read Ch. 6 of Macroeconomics. tuition Read Ch. 7 of Macroeconomics. Reading Read Ch. 8 of Macroeconomics. Reading Read this weeks Electronic Reserve Readings. Participation go into in class discussion. 11/26/12 3 backchat Questions serve to weekly discussion questions. Week Two Aggregate Demand and Supply Models Details Due Points Objectives psychoanalyze the invasion of various factors on coalesce requisite and supply. Evaluate the effectiveness of changes in fiscal policies using Keynesian and Classical models. Reading Read Ch. 10 of Macroeconomics. Reading Read Ch. 12 of Macroeconomics. Participation Participate in class discussion. 12/03/12 3 Discussion Questions Respond to weekly discussion questions. Individual Resource human body 3-1 in Ch. 3 of Macroeconomics. 12/03/12 15 Fundamentals of Macroeconomics Paper P art 1 Describe the following terms in your words. rude domestic product (gross domestic product) Real gross domestic product Nominal GDP Unemployment rate Inflation rate Interest rate Part 2 hire the following examples of economic activities Purchasing of groceries Massive layoff of employees Decrease in taxes Describe how each of these activities hazards government, households, and businesses. Describe the flow of resources from one entity to another for each activity. relieve a 750- to 1,250-word paper summarizing the results. Learning Team Develop a bring up of resources you might use to gather historical economic data as well as 12/03/12 3 Weekly Reflection economic forecast data. Explain how and why each source is invaluable and useful. Identify any quantitative or qualitative forecasting factors contained in the sources. Discuss this weeks o bjectives with your team. Your discussion should include the topics you feel wanton with, any topics you struggled with, and how the weekly topics relate to activity in your field. Write a 350- to 700-word paper that details your teams findings. Week Three Monetary Policy Details Due Points Objectives Assess the factors contributing to the establishment of general and particularized judge of interest. Explain the percentage of the federal Reserve System in intention and implementing U. S. onetary policies. Analyze how the specie multiplier effect facilitates the creation of money. Reading Read Ch. 11 of Macroeconomics. Reading Read Ch. 13 of Macroeconomics. Reading Read Ch. 14 of Macroeconomics. Participation Participate in class discussion. 12/10/12 3 Discussion Questions Respond to weekly discussion questions. Learning Team For this assignment, you will choose from the following options 12/10/12 14 Aggregate De mand and Supply Models Option 1 Economic weighing Paper Option 2 Economic Critique Read the instructions in the University of Phoenix Material Aggregate Demand and Supply Models dictated on the student website and select one option to bring about the assignment. Learning Team Discuss this weeks objectives with your team.Your discussion should include the topics you 12/10/12 3 Weekly Reflection feel promiscuous with, any topics you struggled with, and how the weekly topics relate to application in your field. Write a 350- to 700- word paper detailing the findings of your discussion. Week Four Fiscal Policy Politics, Deficits, and Debt Details Due Points Objectives Analyze the influence of deficit, unornamented, and debt on the health of the U. S. macro sparing. Reading Read Ch. 17 of Macroeconomics. Reading Read Ch. 18 of Macroeconomics. Participation Participate in class discussion. 12/17/12 3 Discussion Questions Respond to weekly discussion questions. Individual Your boss has chosen you to bestow a presentation to a number of unlike officials regarding 12/17/12 15 Federal Reserve the linked States Federal Reserve System. These officials ar very interested in doing Presentation business in the United States, but they would like to learn more about the Fed, how it ope evaluate and how its actions may put on their business. Develop a 5- to 10-slide Microsoft PowerPoint presentation. Address the following questions and include a notes page which contains the write-up portion to each question What ar the factors that would influence the Federal Reserve in adjusting the discount rate? How does the discount rate affect the decisions of banks in setting their specific interest pass judgment? How does monetary constitution control the money supply and inflation? How does a stimulus platform (through the money multiplier) affect the money supply? What current indictors are obvious that there is too much or too little money within the economy and how is monetary policy aiming to adjust this? How do the higher up factors stir individual businesses? Learning Team Discuss this weeks objectives with your team. Your discussion should include the topics you 12/17/12 3 Weekly Reflection feel comfortable with, any topics you struggled with, and how the weekly topics relate to application in your field. Prepare a 350- to 700- word paper detailing the findings of your discussion. Week Five International Trade and Finance Details Due Points Objectives Analyze the effects of internationalistic trade on the U. S. macroeconomy. Explain how foreign alternate rates are determined. Analyze the impact of trade restrictions, tariffs, and quotas on the U. S. macroeconomy. Reading Read Ch. 19 of Macroeconomics. Reading Read Ch. 20 of Macroeconomics. Reading Read Ch. 21 of Macroeconomics. Participation Participate in class discussion. 01/07/13 3 Discussion Questions Respond to weekly discussion questions. Individual Resources Macroeconomics 01/07/13 15 Final Examination Click the link to the Final Examination on your student website. Complete the Final Examination. You are allowed one attempt to complete the exam, which is timed and essential be completed in 3 hours. Results are auto graded and sent to your instructor. Note. Final Examination questions are equal from Macroeconomics. Individual Assume that you have been appointed as the Speaker of the House.You must deliver a speech 01/07/13 10 International Trade and about the current earth of the U. S. macroeconomy to a number of amateur reporters who are Finance Speech unfamiliar with economics. Prepare a 700- to 1,050-word speech in simple terms and concepts that focus on international trade and foreign exchange rates. Integrate a s ummary of your answers to the following questions and cite immaterial research to further justify your facts What happens when there is a surplus of imports brought into the U. S.? name a specific example of a product with an import surplus, and the impact that has on the U. S. businesses and consumers involved. What are the effects of international trade to GDP, domestic markets and university students? How do government choices in regards to tariffs and quotas affect international relations and trade? What are foreign exchange rates? How are they determined? wherefore doesnt the U. S. simply restrict all goods coming in from China? Why crappert the U. S. just minimize the amount of imports coming in from all other countries? Learning Team Discuss within your Learning Team how and why the U. S. s deficit, surplus and debt have an 01/07/13 7 Fiscal Policy Paper effect on the following tax income payers Future Social Security and Medicare users Unemployed individuals University of Phoenix student The United States financial reputation on an international take A domestic automotive manufacturing (exporter) An Italian clothing company (importer) GDP Write a 500- to 700-word paper summarizing the results. Optional Discussion Questions Week One Discussion Questions Why is economics considered a social science? What role does economics play in your personal and professional lives? What is the difference betwixt real and nominal GDP? Does GDP accurately reflect the nations welfare? Why or why not? How can a states GDP be manipulated? In your opinion, is the U. S. GDP being manipulated? Explain your answer. What are the different types of unemployment? How do they affect the economy in terms of growth, labor force, and price of labor? Cite specific examples to support your response. Identify economic factors that affect the real GDP, the unempl oyment rate, the inflation rate, and a key interest rate. How do you predict the economy will coif in the next twain years given the current state of two of the economic factors you identified? How might your system of rules be touch on by these changes? Week Two Discussion Questions Explain the viewpoints of classical and Keynesian economists. How did the economy that existed at the time of these theories influence them? Which theory is more detach for the economy today? Why? Why do Keynesian economists regard market forces do not automatically adjust for unemployment and inflation?What is their reply for stabilizing economic fluctuations? Why do they believe changes in government spending affect the economy differently than changes in income taxes? In your opinion, which two determinates currently have the greatest impact on aggregate demand and supply? Justify your response with an example. What is the difference amid contractionary and expansionary fiscal policies? Which is more appropriate today? Explain your answer. How might contractionary and expansionary fiscal policies affect your organization? Week Three Discussion Questions What are the uses of money? How do mercenary banks and Federal banks create money?Is monetary policy conducted main(a)ly in the United States? Explain your answer. Is it all important(predicate) for monetary policy to remain independent from all parties? Why or why not? What is the difference between contractionary and expansionary monetary policy? What is the intention of each policy under a depression, recession, or robust economy? Which type of monetary policy is more appropriate today and why? What happens to the money supply, interest rates, and the economy if the Federal Reserve is a net seller of government bonds? What happens to the money supply, interest rates, and the economy if the Federal Reserve is a net buyer of government bonds.Why would the government implement a stimulus program into the econo my? ordinate the factors that contribute to the discount interest rate from most important to least(prenominal) important. Justify your rankings. Week Four Discussion Questions How does a government work out deficit affect the economy? Identify two periods in late(a) history in which the United States has run work out deficits. What were the reasons for the deficits during those time periods? How does a government budget surplus affect the U. S. economy? Identify two periods in recent history in which the United States has run budget surpluses. What were the reasons for the surpluses during those time periods? What are the potential consequences of a country having a wide-ranging overall debt? If you were in the position to implement a solution for the countrys long-term debt, what would it be and why? What are the positive and proscribe aspects of budget deficits and surpluses? What policy is best for todays economy? Explain your answer. Week Five Discussion Questions Ex plain how foreign exchange rates are determined. How do changes in interest rates, inflation, productivity, and income affect exchange rates? What are the advantages and disadvantages of a weak versus a strong dollar for imports, exports, international and domestic markets? Who values from a tariff or quota? Who loses?Why would domestic markets benefit from protectionist trade policies? How do protectionist trade policies affect a governments wealth and fiscal policy? What is the effect of a trade surplus? What is the effect of a trade deficit? How do trade deficits and surpluses affect the industry in which you work? Why are trade agreements important for the various countries involved? How is international trade related to the U. S. standard of aliment as opposed to the standard of living of a small industrial nation or a developing nation? How does international trade affect a countrys standard of living? What impact does it have on the way Americans live life, spend, consum e, and so on.?
Tuesday, January 22, 2019
1. Review AT& adenylic acidTs past monetary policies and financial support choices. Were these appropriate for the nature of the avocation?AT&T Corp., one of the largest companies in the United States, has had a long and storied history. Initially, AT&T operated as a monopoly, but in 1982, Justice Department, broke up the federation into one-on-one companies. Prior to divesture (in 1981), AT&T was the largest private company in the world and despite many challenges, AT&T remained an archetypical widow-and-orphans stock for a long time. The term widows and orphans was used to describe stocks with a relatively high degree of safety and dividend income and numbers from exhibit 1speak for themselves. By 1982 the company increased all its key financial indicators.Revenues and operating pay increased 12% and 6% respectively comparing to year 1981. In ten years, the company raised its revenues, net income, cash and assets more(prenominal) than 2 times. Its worth to ment ion that AT&T was adapted to reduce its total outstanding debt by $ 725 mil and at year-end, the companys debt ratio stood 42.3% down from 46.7% in 1980. In addition, AT&T neither cancelled nor lowered dividends, and only increased dividend per role by 10% annually. Aforementioned facts suggest that companys financial policies and financing choices were appropriate for the nature of the business and that AT&T was one st fit, reliable and profitable companies in the world by 1982.2. In what fundamental ways will AT&Ts business change in the near future?Throughout to the highest degree of the 20th century, AT&T held a monopoly on earphone service in the United States. In 1982, through an agreement among AT&T and the U.S. Department of Justice, AT&T agreed to divest itself of its local telephone operations but hold up some of its businesses. The principal provision of the antitrust settlement was that the corporation would be split into seven completely indep endent regional corporations. Each regional company would continue to provide local telephone and other telecom services in addition to ability to sell telephone equipment. The be or pertly AT&T would focus on long distance, R&D and manufacturing arms.3. In view of AT&Ts changing strategic and economic environment, what debt indemnity would you recommend? What other financial policies are appropriate for the new AT&T? What are likely to be the consequences of these financial policies?The new AT&T was no more monopoly and the companys management group faced new challenges. First of all, I call back that when AT&T was monopoly, managers were averse to risk and led more financially conservative policy. After divestiture, it was clear that the external environment changed and good actions needed to be taken to beat off intense competition. Moreover, at that place were several serious questions about future profitability of the new AT&T divisions (especially W estern Electric) and it was not clear whether they would be able finance their operations in competitive markets. Taking into consideration supra stated facts, at that phase I would recommend to shift gears from debt financing and switch toward equity financing.In addition to the change in financial policy, I would also recommend considering a new acquisition scheme to reach more diversified portfolio and to broaden the companys range of a function in other areas.
Sunday, January 20, 2019
What is the main cause of delirium in suppress Harold and the Boys? Master Harold And the Boys indite by Refaat Rayhan uses S protrudeh Africa during the Apartheid era as the main setting that illustrates charge racism and how it unconsciously affects the characters. Hallys warm relationship with two shadowy African servants reflects humanitys potential to dispel racial boundaries. Since Hally has worn out(p) a great part of his youth with these two Black African waiters, they created a unique sense of human attachment that may calculate peculiar to most people that.Simultaneously however, the political climate collectable to apartheid system becomes app arent as the base progresses. The play centrally gives the plentiful impact of Hally, surface-to-air missile and Willies simple conversation of the daily events and problems in their lives and how the conversation reflects the mystical effects of Apartheid system with these characters in particular on Hallys part. It is a pparent that the dominant manifestation of violence here is how the characters unconsciously move and conform to racial differences.However, it can be concluded in this story that family issues also triggers the newspaper of violence in their midst of conservation. Hally who has lacked an optimistic paternal presence in his life has unconsciously appeared to Sam to fill some(a) of that receively role. The unsatisfactory image of Hallys spawn who is drunken cripple of a man and self-importance centered pervades throughout the play. Hallys self esteem and self worth has been damaged over the long time because of his arrests shortcomings and imperfections. His father trials and tribulations have been shouldered by Hally as his own.Hallys hostility and ambiguity of character in the play particularly in the conversation is being manifested every sequence he is being confronted by his mother on the phone recall. The conversation of Hally, Sam and Willie started humorously. They i nitially chatted around ball room competition and later, Hally and Sam teases each other about Wiliess dancing and his dancing partner. Hally in the beginning of the play displays his marrow and acquaintanceshiply interest in the lives of the boys with his optimistic affirmation and approval of their ballroom dancing.Hallys ambiguity of character is of course initially discernable on how he unconsciously and subtly respond to the social construction cosmos of smocks and blacks differences during the whole course of conversation. and lets focus on family issues as a triggering school principal that revealed the real nature of Hally and his tendencies to subtly demonstrate racism. The abrupt and short lived call of his mother once in a while disturbs Hallys moments of optimism and reminisces with his tender memories with two blacks. The violence here is manifested with the mood alteration of Hally every time his mother calls.In the first call, the news that his mother is bri nging his father home from the hospital that day makes Hally uneasy. Since he believes that his father has not in full recovered yet makes him disappointed with the news. As a result he becomes agitated with both Sam and Willie, reminding them that they should go back to work. On the gage call when her mother confirmed that she is bringing her father home from the hospital, Hally argues with her simply loses the argument. He eventually turns his anger loose on Sam and Willie.On the third call of his mother, Hally is forced to speak to his father and pretended to be happy about the homecoming. Sam, aware of whats happening opposes Hally from disrespecting his father. Hally whose pride is hurt, blows out against Sam as he never has before. Hally out of anger reminded Sam of his status as a servant not a friend or a father or any special relationship. watch over that Hally, Sam and Willie speak familiarly and affectionately to each other specially as they reminisce the old days wh en Hallys family is out of picture, nevertheless the course of the conversation altered as Hally is faced with the pressures of his family issues.Hallys hidden and unknown familiarity in racial differences taught by his parents is revealed. What is the main cause of violence in American X? The visual approach of the movie especially in the series of flashbacks to the years leading up to Dereks wickedness and punishment obviously illustrates violence. One might say that the main theme or reasons of violence here is the disastrous implications of racism and hate since Danny and Derek, who are the main protagonists, are both white supremacist that advocate the conviction that white people are superior than any other race.However, the explanations of Danny and Dereks topic changes in behavior should not be perceived as unrelentingly one dimensional alone but rather should look immediate to the Derek and Dannys family background since the subtle voice- overs in the film also design ate the viewers about the events of their familys life. Derek, on the peaked of his teenage years was initially settled by his firefighter father who was an assumed racism. When Dereks father is murdered in a drive by shooting, shortly later on Derek was transformed from a white ordinary teenager to a avenging seeking white supremacist.The death of Dereks father unconsciously influence his future endeavors in different forms of violence. Derek eventually involved himself from minority gangs in their area that commits acts of violence and intimidation. Derek with his skills and abilities became a leader that all these wannabes skinheads look up to including his younger brother Danny. Danny idolizes his bother that inspire his future interlocking in crime and punishments. But when Derek was been in prison once and out with a desire to change attitudes and fates, Danny got disappointed that reflects change of heart as something brutal. The brutalities manifested in the movie start ed from Dereks father up to how Derek greatly influences his brother. transaction CitedPage American History X. Prod. Morrissey, John. McKenna, David. Hess, Jon. Carraro, Bill. Witten, Brian. Peak, Kearie. Turman, Lawrence. De Luca, Michael. Tisch, Steve. Dir. Kaye, Tony. Perf. Edward Norton, Edward Furlong, Beverly DAngelo, Fairuza Balk, Avery Brooks. New Line Cinema, 1998. Fugard, Athol. Master Harold and the Boys. Penguin Books, 1984
Saturday, January 19, 2019
touch Go Fast is a motorcycle manufacturer in the gray United States. Though sales have been steady, profits have declined because of increase practicable costs. The Board of Directors felt a fresh look at the operations side was needed. They developed a 5-year plan to increase direct efficiency and fix out to find someone to lead the effort. quartet months ago, GO FAST found what they saw as the person to be the smart operations coach and develop a new operational plan to reduce costs. Jill Jones had an outstanding reputation as operations director for a manufacturer of a closely related product. While she was set in a different state and was happy with her live business organization and lifestyle, she found the 5-year plan exciting. Besides, the say was too tempting to refuse.Jill was offered the position, including a veritable increase in fee and benefits. She accepted the job, sold her foot, and purchased a home near her new job. Her husband runs an in-home busines s and her children had adapted well to the new community and schools. She did non have a written push, but was obligationd a great future with GO FAST and was given a salary of $90,000 per year. With the economic downturn, sales for this past year were the lowest in vanadium years. The company needs to make drastic cost reductions or it could pillow slip bankruptcy. All senior managers agreed to a 25% pay cut. several(prenominal) other high-paid positions testament be eliminated. Among them is Jill Jones operations director position.Published by DECA Related Materials. Copyright by DECA Inc. No pick of this publication whitethorn be reproduced for resale without written permission from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.YOUR CHALLENGE The chief financial officer has been asked by the board of directors to investigate GO FASTS bargain to Jill Jones. You have been assigned the task of doing look. The board of directors assumes their arranging with Mrs. Jones is temporary-at-will based on the law in the state, and therefore GO FAST has no indebtedness to her. You will prepare recommendations to be chip ined to the chief financial officer (CFO). Since the conclusion is ultimately up to the CFO, your presentation should include, at a minimum 1. How you convey Jill would react to the boards hard-line approach. 2. Possible ways to conceive with Mrs. Jones situation, including the positives and negatives of each. 3. Of these, you are to advise the CFO on the best course of fulfill, and how to present it to Jill. While the financial challenges of the company are not a secret, Jill does not yet know that her position has been targeted for elimination. Your presentation to the CFO will pay off in one hour. As part of your research you have pulled a copy of The Fair Debt Collections Practices Act, as well as cases related to this loss (see reference in stampation set upd).The information in THIS section is the result of research d one specifically for this case situation, and has been given to you to help you prepare your recommendations in spite of appearance the allotted time. The judges will also receive this information, in plus to the Case speculate Situation and Your Challenge as presented.BACKGROUND trainingThe following information leave behinds background related to this situation.State Employment practice of lawUnder state law, job generally is considered to be at will, terminable by either party at any time. This means that an employer whitethorn terminate an employee with or without just cause, in the absence of an agreement qualifying the employees discharge to just cause or specifying the term of the employment. redden where an employer makes assurances seeming to mean job permanence, much(prenominal) assurances are generally considered stainless statements of policy indicating only at-will employment. However, state courts have also held that employee personnel manual provisions, if they carry through the requirements for formation of a one-sided produce, may become enforceable as part of a press out of employment. An agreement which includes a tell from one party but not from the other is called a unilateral contract. A unilateral contract is, for example, where an employer cartels to pay a certain take if an employee does a certain task for a certain period of time. The employees performance of that task for that time makes him or her entitled to the promised wages.The promise of employment on particular cost of unspecified duration, if presented in the form of an offer and accepted by the employee, will create a binding unilateral contract. These types of actions are referred to as promissory estoppel actions and they permit an exception to the employment-at-will doctrine. In parade to effect a contract, the employers personnel policy as set out in the personnel policy handbook essential be more than a general statement of policy and must(pren ominal) provide reasonably influenced terms for a fact finder to symbolize and apply in determining whether there has been a bust of the contract arising from that handbook. General statements of policy by an employer do not meet the contractual requirements of an offer. Employees frequently couple claims that certain oral representations constitute an enforceable agreement with assertions that certain actions by the employer create an implied contract to terminate only for unplayful cause.For example, employees often contend that an employer has established a custom and practice such that employees are permitted to continue employment until retirement unless discharged for good and suitable cause. Such an allegation does not meet the requirement of a definite offer. Similarly, an employers commendations and approval of the employees performance do not garble the employees at-will status. Severance pay is not required by legislation. Where it is provided by an employer or labo r agreement, it must not be administrated in a discriminatory manner. Where it is provided, severance pay is considered wages in this state. The method of wages of severance pay may delay the employees eligibility for unemployment compensation benefits.promissory Estoppel The state Supreme Court recognized that, despite the absence of a contract in fact, courts may imply the existence of a contract in law by utilizing the principle of promissory estoppel. The doctrine of promissory estoppel is applicable when 1. A promise has been made 2. The promissory reasonably expect to induce action of a definite and substantial character by the promise 3. The promise in fact induces such action 4. The mickle require the enforcement of the promise in order to avoid disadvantage. An estoppel may initiate from a promise of future performance. The doctrine of promissory estoppel is based in a promise which the promisor should reasonably expect to induce action of forbearance of a definite and substantial character on the part of the promise and which induces such action or forbearance and is binding if injustice can be avoided only by enforcement of the promise.Under the theory of promissory estoppel, liability on a contract may ensue pull down if the detriment incurred by one party is not bargained for where it can be shown that the promisor should reasonably have expected its promise to induce others detrimental action. The impairment-of-contract clause in the states disposition applies to an implied-in-law obligation created by promissory estoppel. The effect of promissory estoppel is to imply a contract in law where none exists in fact. When a promise is enforced pursuant to the doctrine of promissory estoppel, the remedy handed for the breach may be limited as justice requires relief may be limited to damages measured by the promises reliance.RELATED CASE PRECEDENTS INFORMATIONThe following information is designed to provide samples of cases that may influence d ecisions made related to the case situation. The participants must decide what, if any, relevance these Related Case Precedents have on this Case Study Situation. bitch v. purpose, Inc. (1981)The doctrine of promissory estoppel was applied by the court to grant damages to a pharmacist who accepted a job offer, resigned his current job and declined another job offer in reliance on this offer, but was terminated from his new job before he flat had a chance to start it. Plan Inc knew that to accept its offer Grouse would have to resign his employment. Grouse promptly gave notice and informed Plan Inc that he had done so when specifically asked by them. Under these mountain it would be unjust not to hold Plan Inc to its promise.Gorham v. Optical (1995) causation employee was entitled to reliance damages based on theory of promissory estoppel, where he quit his previous job and declined any renegotiations with previous employer in reliance on promise of new job, and on his first day o f employment went through hostile reinterview process that led to his immediate termination.Lewis v. assumption Society (1986)A promise of employment on particular terms of unspecified duration, if presented in form of an offer and accepted by employee, will create a binding unilateral contract.Pine River v. Mettille (1983)Generally speaking, promise of employment on particular terms of unspecified duration, if in form of an offer, and if accepted by employee, may create binding unilateral contract offer must be definite in form and must be communicated to the offeree.Goodkind v. University (1988)Whether a proposal by employer is meant to be an offer for a unilateral contract is determined by the outward manifestations of the parties, not by their subjective intentions, and employers general statements of policy do not meet the contractual requirements for an offer.Gunderson v. Professionals, Inc. (2001)To overcome the boldness that employment is at will, an employee typically mus t establish clear and unequivocal language by the employer evidencing an intent to provide job security. General statements about job security, company policy, or an employers desire to retain an employee indefinitely are insufficient to overcome the presumption that employment is at will.Spanier v. Bank (1993)Terminated employee failed to show any picture of offer for long-term employment in definite form so as to be entitled to recover for employers breach of implied promise of good faith and fair dealing as result of his termination, where employees claims were based on subjective belief and his own inferences that employers commitment to commercial lending business would provide him job security and employers statements about developing this new area of business did not constitute long-term employment offer.
Friday, January 18, 2019
There are disparate systems in which an individual or a comp whatever could mother good decisions. They can vary depending on the issue at hand and they denote and different in certain ways. In this writing I depart compare the similarities and differences between rectitude theory, utilitarianism, and deontological ethics. I impart include a description of the differences in how each theory addresses ethics and morality. And I will give a personal experience to explain the blood between virtue, values, and moral concepts as they relate to peerless of the three theories. Ethical systems ground on abstract values are described as virtue theory.Virtue theory is based on character ethics. It is the viewpoint that in living nonpareils life one should try to mould excellence in all they do and in all that otherwise do. This is the system that would address ethics and morality from the perspective of living with towering values and with great character (Boylan, 2009). Quoting Boylan (2009) from our book, Utilitarianism is a theory that suggests that an military action is virtuously right when that action produces more total utility for the group than any other alternative (pp. 153). Utilitarianism focuses on what is best for the group or team as a whole. This theory asks, What honourable decision will gather the most for the largest amount of people? Deontology is a moral theory that emphasizes ones duty to do a particular action proficient because the action, itself, is inherently right and not through any other sorts of calculations (Boylan, 2009). Calculations equivalent what the consequences of that action might be. Deontology is a duty-based theory when addressing ethics and morality.In analyse these three, a utilitarian working for ATT might everywherelook a heavy(p) credit report to make a deal because the deal would foster the company and the client. Therefore its a win-win. A deontologist might make the same decision based on the f act that the client demand a cell phone to be able to take administer of business in order to take of her children. The simple fact that the action is inherently right regardless of the consequences is the bases for the deontologist. And to the contrary only a virtuous worker would have integrity and do what was in the best arouse of the company. A personal experience of mine to relate these topics would be a girlfriend of mine just got out of a bad alliance where she was not married, but had a child with this man.She lived with the father of her child for some years although he was abusive and was providing home that was unsafe and insufficient for her and her child. She stayed for many years making decisions as a utilitarian until one solar day she changed to a deontologist. She chose to leave the state and ignore the rights of the father on the curtilage that he was abusing both her and her son. She valued her and her sons health over anything. She was virtuous in that she rose above the desire to retaliate and chased only their protection. And all of her actions where based on her moral concepts, according to her beliefs and understanding.In conclusion, there are many different theories and ways to make ethical decisions. I have related and compared the virtue theory, utilitarianism, and deontology. I have excessively shared a personal experience to relate virtue, values, and moral concepts to one of these theories. Life and business are about making decisions and these concepts and theories are a foundation to a healthy life and a healthy business.ReferencesThompson, S. (2014). What is the relationship among virtue, values & moral concepts in individual and business contexts?. Retrieved from http//smallbusiness.chron.com/relationship-among-virtue-values-moral-concepts-individual-business-contexts-69097.html Boylan, M. (2009). raw material Ethics. Prentice Hall.
Wednesday, January 16, 2019
2013-02-0108 Bilal Syed Critical Issues in Pakistans international policy 13th October 2012 Has the repair of 9/11 been baneful or beneficial to Pakistans handicraft protection environment? Analyze. The second year of the current millennium was witness to an incident which might pass water perhaps altered the geo- policy-making structure of the world and gave turn in to a whole new phenomenon, angiotensin converting enzyme, which has been directing foreign policy personal matters of the world for al or so a decade now.This event comprised the four terrorist attacks on United States soil, on September the eleventh, 2001, in which hijacked planes crashed into the twin towers of the world trade pennyre, the Pentagon and champion fell short of its target in Shanksfield Pennsylvania. These events gave birth to the state of struggle on terror, which has not only affected the United States precisely a lot of other countries as well, especi onlyy Pakistan, who had a adult geo strategic location in the vicinity of the battle grounds for this contend. This war has had both domineering and negative effects on the security and worldwide perceptual constancy of Pakistan.This essay exit try to discern these effects and show whether in the farsighted run, the impact of 9/11 has been baneful or beneficial to Pakistans security environment. Firstly, the positive impacts of the war on terror result be considered. Since the perpetrators of the attacks were considered to be hiding in Afghanistan, all the contact countries in the region became strategic strategic partners of the United States and its allies. Pakistan, perhaps the most influential since it had a long narration of dealing with the Taliban and had in perspicacity knowledge of the terrain and surrounding atomic number 18a.Chairperson, Department of Political Science, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Professor Razia Musarrat claims that Pakistans geographic location, its nearness with A fghanistan, its close traffic with the Taliban regime, its deep knowledge of the rugged terrain of Afghanistan, and its history of Cold War alliance made Pakistan obviously the most important strategic asset for the United States. Pakistan offered its support to the United States including airbases and military word of honor to help eradicate the terrorist elements present in Afghanistan. As a go over the years Pakistan has received military ssistance and encourage from the United States, component part in brining military and technological advancements to the boorish. It is important to note that at the clipping of these attacks, Pakistan was in isolation at the world stage due to sanctions obligate on it, aft(prenominal) it carried aside atomic tests in 1998. India as well was facing the same sanctions, but having a stronger preservation meant that it managed to survive this dry pen comparatively much easily than Pakistan. Pakistan on the other hand was vile from the consequences of these sanctions and the war on terror surprisingly came as a relief.Pakistan has been assumption economic assistance of almost ten billion dollars over a period of ten years as its ties with the waste slowly improved. This care rescued its stagnant economy and ensured that Pakistans economic woes were overcome, a change, really welcome for the Musharraf regime. Thirdly, chain armor 9/11, South Asia became the centre of the Worlds attention. A senior political analyst notes, that with the front end of two atomic power friends, and an Al-Qaeda-strewn Afghanistan, South Asia assumed a strategic status in American eyes. The rebirth of South Asia prominence was not limited to America, instead for whole the world. at that place was a long chain of Heads of States, and highest officials visiting the region every alternative day were evidence of long term strategic interests of the US in the region. This new found attention allowed externally isolated Pakistan an d India spikelet into the master(prenominal) stream of world politics and bolstered the image of the res publica in the eyes of the world, as a nation that was once morest terrorism. A somewhat debateable positive outcome, but one that could be dependable is that this war against terrorism helped to suss out the spread of militancy in the country.Former foreign minister of Pakistan, Mr Abdul Sattar argues that, another(prenominal) portentous benefit of the post-9/11 policy has been containment of the baneful influence of extremists and militants. Had the war on terror not been targeted against organizations comparable Al-Qaeda, they might thrust consolidated their positions in Afghanistan and Pakistan and continued to follow their own agendas. The post 9/11 policy helped to contain this spread of ideology but unfortunately could not eliminate it from society completely. Another major impact of the war on terror, it can be argued, is that it led to constancy in the region.T he main pretend of instability in the region over the years has been hostile Pakistan, India relations. common chord major wars and countless other incidents aimed at nethermining the other country, have turn an already messy divorce. The acquisition of atomic warheads by both states couple with the Kashmir issue, have caused this region to become highly volatile. This was also the case post 9/11, when after an attack on the Indian parliament in December of 2001, India mobilized its military forces on a large scale against Pakistan.Pakistan too responded and both armies stood face to face with each other opposite the international borders. There was a very serious threat of an outbreak of nuclear war and alarm bells started ringing in the international arena. Eventually it was the heraldic bearing of the United States in the region which helped diffuse the highly volatile bureau. The threat of nuclear war, coupled with the reverence that a Pakistan-India war would be denigr atory to the war on terror, meant that the United Sates put in a replete hearted effort to ease tensions.This was eventually the case and stability was brought to the region again. These are some of the positive outcomes to the war on terror for Pakistan. But at that place have been dreadful negative consequences for the country as well. Firstly, just like it can be argued that just like US presence brought stability to the region it also brought a lot of instability. This is evident from the impact of the war on Afghanistan, where Prof. Dr. Razia Musarrat argues, that the Taliban government activity had been successful to restore a kind of stability in Afghanistan for the first time after a very long period of unrest.America, by ripping to pieces the Taliban regime, once again pushed Afghanistan into a new phase of insurgency and civil war. This unstable and troubled situation result not remain control within the Afghan borders rather will soon spread into the neighbouring st ates. We can see for ourselves that the unrest and turbulence in Afghanistan has leaked out into Pakistan. This has been a cause of grand concern for Pakistan, because the Afghani scar of militancy and extremism has seeped in the country and has started rearing its ugly head against the state.Secondly, Pakistan had intimate relations with the Taliban prior to the American offensive. So much so that they were considered supporters of the Taliban, a notion which caused concern to other surrounding countries like India. But after the war, the northern alliance came into power and the resulting Afghan government did not have a favourable view of Pakistan. India on the other hand took utility of this and firmly established itself in Afghanistan. It became the largest regional donor of aid to Afghanistan in the post war period.Strong relations with Afghanistan could very beneficial for Indian foreign policy since Afghanistan shares such a large border with Pakistan. Having strong rel ations with a hostile neighbours neighbour is a strategically strong move and puts Pakistan in a delicate situation. Also, India could have clean access to Central Asia via Afghanistan, which could give it access to their abundant natural resources and fan out other cheaper trading avenues. India would not have to be dependent on Pakistan for access to Central Asia, which might come across as another blow to Pakistan.Another cause of concern for Pakistan, at the political level, was constant Indian pressure that Pakistan provided a safe haven for terrorists. India took advantage of American presence in the region and looked at this as an opportunity to further one of its foreign policy goals, that is, to ensure that Pakistan was strongly implicated in harbouring terrorists under its roof. The case for this argument was of course Pakistans close relations with the Taliban and the item that Pakistan was a big supporter of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.Secondly India had claimed time and again that Pakistan uses terrorist groups to promote their foreign policy agendas. They claimed that the Pakistani intelligence cell, the ISI, with the blessings of the government equipped, trained and infiltrated militants into Kashmir. This was a very serious claim considering Pakistan was a nuclear state which endorsed state sponsored terrorism. The Indian government hoped that the United States would finally determine Indias point of view and become an ally of India against Pakistans state-sponsored terrorism. Indian security agencies hope that the terrorist attack in New York on Tuesday will see the United States put pressure on Pakistan to extradite Dawood Ibrahim, tiger Memon, Chhota Shakeel and others, who masterminded the serial bomb blasts in Mumbai in March 1993. Domestically, Pakistan has had to pay a very heavy price for the part it has played in the war. There has been a huge increase in the number of terrorist and militant organizations in the country afte r the war.Following the events of the 2001-2002 standoff between Pakistan and India, Musharraf, pledged to crack land on the militant organizations working in the country. They were obviously not free to go easily and put up resistance by targeting government and security establishments. Thousands of innocent civilians were killed as result of suicide attacks and the whole country was gripped in a constant state of fear. The law and order situation got so wore that the president himself narrowly survived two bold attempts on his life.The pass off was the worst in the north western region, for the people divided by international borders shared the same strong bonds of ethnicity and culture. Taking cue from the Taliban of Afghanistan, the Tehrik-e-Taliban Pakistan became an officious anti-state terrorist organization comprised of mostly Pashtoons, just like the Afghani Taliban. It is responsible for carrying out hundreds of terrorist attacks on state owned institutions and civilia ns as well. They were perhaps behind the character assassination of Benazir Bhutto and one of the biggest causes for instability in the Khyber-Pukhtoonkhwa province.The situation became too bad to be ignored and the Pakistan military launched a full scale military public presentation in which thousands of troops were involved to deal with this menace. Even though millions of rupees and a lot of soldiers were lost in the operation, the operation was unsuccessful and the Taliban continue spirit in the mountains of the Waziristan region, albeit as outlaws and vigilantes. This religious extremist ideology, unfortunately, is not only confined to Pakistans western provinces. This menace has slowly started spreading in the comparatively more peaceful Punjab and Sindh provinces as well.The society is slowly becoming more polarised on the issue of whether Pakistan should keep on fighting Americas war. Others however believe this is a war for Pakistans own survival. whatsoever the case is , the country has been gripped in a constant state of fear and gloom. Notions of national cohesiveness and unity are fast withering forward as the Pashtoon and Baloch communities claim they have felt the brunt of the war on terror, a notion that is true considering the drone attacks that are carried out in their homelands.A 2012 melodic theme on the security situation of 2011 in Pakistan puts the matter in cave in perspective. WhileFATAcontinued to reel under the impact of terrorism, there was no respite from terror inKPas well. Sindh continued to experience a morecentralized patternof force in and around Karachi. However, the extension of the influence of armed extremist political, ethnic, sectarian and criminal groups in the city, and the chances of violence spreading to other areas of the Province, could not be ruled out. Overall the cost of this war on terror have been staggering for Pakistan.The costs, in name of monetary terms, political terms, social terms and most imp ortantly hurt of life are so huge, that Pakistan is all the same reeling from the blow. The report mentioned earlier, gives an idea regarding the losses sustained by Pakistan. Pakistans continuing engagement with the production and exporting of Islamist extremism and terrorism continued to produce a bloody blowback at home, with a total of at least 6,142 persons, including of 2,797 militants, 2,580 civilians and 765 Security Forces (SFs) personnel killed in 2011.However, even this worrying total constituted an improvement of 17. 75 per cent over the preceding year. 7,435 persons, including 5,170 militants, 1,796 civilians and 469 SF personnel, had been killed in 2010. Secondly, the war has almost dried up foreign investment in Pakistan, as no one is uncoerced to come here considering the prevailing security situation and the unstable political scenario.The economy is in shambles as a major swelling of the budget goes to the army and less and less is spent on the people. It is true that Pakistan is getting aid from outside, but it cannot just rely on aid to survive in the future. A major energy crisis has added to the woes of the country and caused great distress to the public. Anti American sentiments are now at an all time high and the country looks forward to the day it does not have to deal with these issues any more.As former foreign minister Abdul Sattar says, So gigantic have been the human and physical ravages our country has suffered during the last decade that no sensitive citizen can but wish Pakistan had followed a different course, one that might have saved our country and people from the nightmare in which we are still trapped. If the positive and negative outcomes of the post 9/11 policy are weighed against each other, it can be concluded that it has been general more baneful than beneficial to the country.Yes, the policy allowed Pakistan to come back into the main stream of international politics and yes, it caused an influx of foreig n aid into the country which rescued a stagnant economy, but at what cost? The material costs of thousands of dollars or the cost of human life, to which a value cannot be assigned, have been tremendous. The country is gripped by a war that is ravaging its socio-political fabric. The economy is once again in shambles and the country stands on the coast of bankruptcy.The more alarming thought is that, the war on terror is still not over and its consequences keep haunting the country. Once the coalition troops leave Afghanistan, the whole region will be locked in a geo-political struggle for supremacy and with major players like hostile India involved, the odds do not look good for Pakistan. Works Cited Balakrishnan, S. India Hopes US Will right away Pressurise Pak. The Times Of India. N. p. , 2001. Web. 14 Oct. 2012. <http//articles. timesofindia. indiatimes. com/2001-09-12/mumbai/27251608_1_dawood-mumbai-police-blasts>. Pakistan Assessment 2012. South Asia Terrorism Portal. N. p. , n. d. Web. 12 Oct. 2012. <http//www. satp. org/satporgtp/countries/pakistan/>. Musarrat, Prof. Dr. Razia. US WAR ON TERRORISM AND ITS IMPACT ON southmost ASIA. Thesis. University of the Punjab, n. d. Http//pu. edu. pk. University of the Punjab. Web. http//pu. edu. pk/images/journal/pols/Currentissue-pdf/RAZIA. pdf Sattar, Abdul. REVISIT TO POST-9/11 POLICY. Criterion-Quarterly7. 1 (2012) n. pag. Criterion-quarterly. com. 2012. Web. 12 Oct. 2012. <http//www. criterion-quarterly. com/revisit-to-post-911-policy/>.