Thursday, February 28, 2019

Globalization: Good or Bad Essay

A tremendously battleful issue, globalisation has been the center if much discusses and has raised a lot of questions. just about amaze viewed its procedure as helpful, while m whatsoever an(prenominal) others disagree that it produces obstinate results and monetary value. Though, before the questions and apprehensions of globalization, it is essential to decide or rather describe globalization and all which is concerned. Although fairly new term, dating to 1980s, globalization has been historical compute evident for everywhere the last 100 years. globalisation specially encompasses some(prenominal) aspects for example cope, capital movement, stretch of information, movement of mountain.(Yager 2004) In the broader definition, globalization promotes effectuality by utilizing each market and kingdoms specialness n nonp beiltheless, allowing people and economies to focus on what they do best. Globalization gives opportunity to each nation to access each others markets a s well as to capital flow, technology, imports, exports, politics, and culture. However, as some countries continually reap the benefits and flourish others be falling short. (Guillen 2001) With any global process there are definitely risks and consequences to follow.It is certain that globalization led to great economical growth but it is obvious that prosperity is non equal. Already advanced countries are the angiotensin-converting enzymes who mystify benefited most by globalization nevertheless, this is non to say slowly underdeveloped countries grant not prospered as well. However, the patheticest regions such as in Africa and the former Soviet take away not been able to keep up with the piecewide phenomenon. Low income countries surrender not integrated with the global economy because of policies and outside factors beyond their control.These factors are not fault of globalization however, there has not been much labor to strengthen these countries financial sys tems. Globalization is overleaping processes in which to add-on address and aid to the poorest countries which would help with integration of all countries-rich and poor. Furthermore, there are not only gaps between the rich and poor countries, but among the rich and poor within the countries which are benefiting from globalization. (Gladwin 2002) Comparative expediency and globalizationThe scheme of absolute returns was originally proposed in 1776 by Adam Smith. Smiths system was the first to explain the benefit of free trade. Smith matte that the hand of the market mechanism, rather than government policy, should determine countries imports and exports. Free trade is achieved when government does not influence trade through quotas or duties. possibility of absolute vantage, suggests that uncouth should specialize in producing goods in areas where it has an absolute advantage and import goods in areas where other countries have absolute advantages.(Sherman, Steingard & Fitzgibbons 2002) The surmisal of relative advantage, building on Smiths theory, David Ricardo advanced the intellectual theory for unrestricted free trade by suggesting that it makes sense for domain to specialize in producing those goods that it butt produce most efficiently, while buying goods that it can produce relatively less efficiently from other countries even if that representation buying goods from other countries that it could produce more efficiently itself.In short, the theory of comparative advantage suggests that opening state to free trade stimulates economic growth. (Guillen 2001) Heckscher-Ohlin theory is refined version of the work of Ricardo. Eli Heckscher and Bertil Ohlin, 20th century Swedish economists revealed one of the most influential ideas in international economics. (Brown, David, and hunter 2004) The Heckscher-Ohlin possibility has been one of the most significant hypothetical ideas in global economics.The Heckscher-Ohlin theory suggests tha t the pattern of international trade is determined by endowments. The theory move on reveals that, countries allow export those goods that make intensive use of topically wide factors and will import goods that make intensive use of factors that are locally scarce. (Stasavage 2005) Factors of Globalization The major drivers of globalization are the decline in barriers to the free flow of goods, returns, and capital, technological change, conversation, information processing, and transportation technologies.Examples of declining trade and institutionalizement cash in hand barriers that will enable the free flow of goods and services can be tickn in the reduction of tariffs and legal blocks which have prevented cross dry land bloodline. (Gladwin 2002) These barriers were lessoned over the past decades facilitated by the collapse of communism in Eastern europium and the move towards free market economies in China and Latin America. drop-off of these barriers has resulted in the current trend toward the globalization of exertion and the ability to see the domain as single market.(Yergin & Stanislaw 2000) Examples of technological change can be seen in the major advances seen in parley, information processing, and transportation technology, including the explosive issuance of the Internet and the globe Wide We. Arguably the most important evolution is that of the microprocessor, which has fueled explosive growth increasing power and reducing be there by exponentially increasing the amount of information affect by individual and government activitys a standardized.(Guillen 2001) In the past three decades global communication has been enhanced by disciplines in satellite, optical fiber, wireless technologies, the Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW). Transportation innovations such as the jet aircraft, super-freighters, and the introductions of containerization have simplified shipment from one mode of transportation to the next thereby inc reasing the speed and reducing the cost of goods shipped enabling organisations to expand the geographical area to which goods can be shipped. (Osland Dhanda & Yuthas 2002) Pros ProductivityTo begin with, globalization is creating hawkish advantage to companies which outsource labor work to cheaper countries hence lowering their costs. In this scenario both countries would be better of since the cheaper country would foreign cash inflows and the outsourcing country would have cheaper costs. (Gladwin 2002) problem with this practice is creating loss of jobs in the outsourcing country, but that is like saying supermarket is laying of specific workers to hire more efficient workers and so creating joblessness for the laid off workers.The workers will eventually get work in field where they have comparative advantage in which is having an advantage among others establish on specialization (in the simple sense). (Jepsen 2004) The same applies to country as consentient when une mployment is on the rise this will probably create downward imperativeness on the cost of employment in the country and therefore having companies departure back to hiring locals for the job since they now cost less and would then have the comparative advantage. second undercoat why globalization should be back up is that worldwide welfare is increased when each country does what is has comparative advantage in, and this should come naturally as each beau monde in country individually finds the country to produce in that makes the most economic sense. (Brown, David, and Hunter 2004) This increase in welfare is accomplished because by definition when use comparative advantage each country is working in its specialization therefore each country is producing relatively its highest capacity.One of the greatest evils for the business/economic world is inflation and globalization helps limit inflation and this is repayable to competition in bigger scale (worldwide) rather than j ust country wide. (Osland Dhanda & Yuthas 2002) Another reason why welfare will increase because of globalization is the fact that countries which have jobs given to them from foreign countries will now have more means to buying products from other countries all over the world therefore increasing the standard of living in all countries involved.Globalization spawns interaction between many different cultures which creates an understanding of populations ideologies and values towards one another. (Gladwin 2002) This creates more political stability as misunderstandings are less probably to occur. This can also be problem as some extremists index be close minded to interaction and introduction of foreigners into the country which creates pussy of cultural clash and some problems might occur such as revolutions against new policies and, in an extreme situation, war.(Stasavage 2005) Ideas and innovation Although in general globalization is positive effect it still has its pitfal ls. As previously discussed workers in the outsourcing country loose lot of their jobs and unemployment is serious problem to every economy. It is been said that one quarter of workers who have lost their jobs to outsourcing would still be unemployed 3 years from the time they were laid-off.(Sherman, Steingard & Fitzgibbons 2002) The workers who have not lost their job will probably be facing survivor syndrome which is the fear of loosing their job aft(prenominal) huge lay off has made around them and they havent been laid-off which has effects on the humans health(heart problems) and productivity if they mobilise there is no hope and they start lagging of. Exploitation of developing countries by developed countries is one of the major problems of globalization and it exists in deuce forms.The first type is using the labor force of country for an extremely low worth, in some cases old woman and very preadolescent children were used in the production of various products such as home and clothing. (Gladwin 2002) This issue was brought into attention in the late nineties with companies like Nike exploiting youth kids to work for close to nothing and in horrid conditions in countries such as Indonesia. The second form of exploitation is when developing countries are obligate to sell their products (coffee in the case of Brazil) at very low price due to market fluctuations and the desperate motivation for income. cut in the production of one product in one part of the world would be highly felt in whole different part of the world and that effect is highly substantial in primary products like oil. (Gladwin 2002) Inflation, jobs and outsourcing there are many advantages which company could get from outsourcing its distribution employments. study which has been conducted in 1993 reported that company could reduce 9% of its operating(a) costs by outsourcing. When company is outsourced its distribution function to world-class provider, it would red uce the cost of this function as the provider would be more efficient and specialist in this function.Also, by outsourcing non-core activities like distribution, company could focus on its core activities and increase revenues. . Managers realize that by outsourcing their routine, nonessential routines, they can better focus on the core competencies that truly differentiate them from competitor. (Gladwin 2002) For example, Ericsson one, of the leading companies in the telecommunication industry, wanted to reduce its costs in the supply chain by decision solution to its warehouses in Philippines.(Guillen 2001) Ericsson is always trying to reduce costs in different areas of business, this is including, the supply chain so as to save capital and focus on Research and development. Therefore, Ericsson turned to Exel. Ericsson has leased the warehousing operation to Exel on two years contract. Exel has provided flexible service to Ericsson which has resulted in cost saving and made Ericsson concentrate on its core businesses. Before Ericsson has to keep the warehouse operation in-house but it was not the core competencies of the business. (Osland Dhanda & Yuthas 2002)Another advantage of outsourcing is the reduction of the need to invest in non-core business assets such as warehousing and carriers. This will allow the firm to make the capital funds more available for core functions such as research and development in the telecommunication industry. For example, Northern Telecom manufacture enterprise which is operating in 130 countries has outsourced its distribution service to Ryder Dedicated Logistic. The main reason for Northern Telecom to outsource its distribution function, it did not want to invest in non-core activities.(Yergin & Stanislaw 2000) The development and increasing implementation of outsourcing has not been without its problem. The cost escalation and lose of quality of service are two of the more frequent complaints from firms towards the thirdly party, although contractors argue that these problems often stem from firms failure to be precise about what they want by outsourcing their distribution service. Clear objectives need to be set by and to achieve this high level of communication and understanding between firm and service provider must be established.(Sherman, Steingard & Fitzgibbons 2002) Cons Jobs loss The risk outsourcing is the impact of outsourcing on those currently responsible for solicitude of the function is constitutional. If the service is outsourced, the management of the provision of the service from within the organization is radically changed from management of function to management of the business relationship with contractor. The lack of control posed by movement of this function outside of the organization is often seen as the greatest risk of outsourcing. Consequently, it needs to be guardedly planned and managed.In reality, the effect of outsourcing can simply be seen as shift in f ocus from managing function to managing contractual relationship. Careful provision together with contract written to provide for control measures such as performance monitoring, and good contract administration will minimize or negate any lack of control. (Gladwin 2002) Outsourcing now usually includes benefit transfers. Examples are transfers of ply, sale of existing equipment, and/or transfer of existing contracts used in the provision of the service.It is common for specialist outsourcing companies to seek transfer of existing staff to do the work. An organization can facilitate this process by allowing communication between staff and bidders about options for staff. Many staff views the opportunity to work with an organization that specializes in their field as valuable others will elect redeployment or simply redundancy. (Gladwin 2002) Sometimes the sale, lease or sublicense of state of affairs is also involved. It is therefore important that complete asset valuat ion is undertaken as part of the process of defining an organizations current service and preferred requirements.The organization must know what equipment and other physical lieu it has, including consumables, what contracts are currently used in the provision of the service and relevant details of those contracts. It is common for specialist outsourcing companies to seek transfer of existing staff to do the work. An organization can facilitate this process by allowing communication between staff and bidders about options for staff. All these need to be considering when the company decides to outsource its distribution activities to the external agents. (Jepsen 2004)As noted, there are many advantages for companies who choose outsourcing as means of satisfying their logistics need, but just as there are advantages there are also disadvantages. Outsourcing is ground upon fundamental principles and, if those are applied at the outset of relationship, the parties will most likely have an effective, successful relationship. But if the parties enter into an agreement that is not based on those principles, the result will be an unsatisfactory relationship and, probably, an primal termination of the contract. (Karliner 2000)

A Photograph-Shirley Toulson Essay

What does the word artificial denote in the poem? Why has this word been hired? In the poem, the word cardboard stands for the butt that supports and borders the photograph. The photograph shows the poets drive as a twelve-year- emeritus female child with two of her cousins, Betty and Dolly. The word cardboard has been used to depict that the photograph is more old age old. The use of cardboard as a photo frame was common in old times.What has the camera captured?The camera has captured a expert moment from the childhood age of the poets fuck off. The photograph was taken when the poets puzzle (at the age of twelve or so) went to a beach holiday with two of her cousins, Betty and Dolly. The captured picture serves as a preserved memory two for the mother as well as the poet.What has not changed over the geezerhood? Does this suggest something to you? The lines, and the sea, which appears to have changed less depicts that the sea have stayed the same over the years. It has not changed at all. These lines suggest a sharp contrast to the psyche tender life. Human life is transitory and temporary whereas the sea symbolizes permanence, immortality and eternity. The poet makes use of the phrase terribly transient feet to highlight the ephemeral nature of human life.The poets mother laughed at the snapshot. What did this laugh indicate? The poets mother laughed while recalling a moment of her past captured in the photograph. She looks back at her childhood days with nostalgia and recollects her innocent joys. Looking at the picture years later brings in her mind the fond memories. She laughs at the way they were dressed to kill(p) up for the beach holiday. But in the midst of these pleasant memories, lies the injure of exit. The pain comes from the acknowledgement that the lovely days of her childhood give neer come back to her.What is the meaning of the line Both wry with the constrained ease of loss? The context of the above lines is the moth ers callback of her childhood days and the poets recollection of her mothers laughing face. The mother has fond memories of her past but there is a horse sense of loss in recalling those moments as they make her realize that the good old times of her childhood will never come back. For the poet, the loss refers to the loss of her mother. She has fond memories of her dead mother but she misses her laughter and her presence that will never return to the poet. Thus, both remember their pasts with a laugh that conceals sorrow as none can re-live those lost moments.The triplet stanzas depict three different phases. What are they? The first stanza refers to the childhood days of the poets mother when she was twelve years old or so. The stanza depicts a photograph of her mother when she went for a beach holiday with her cousins and uncle. The second stanza refers to the poets childhood days when her mother had become an adult. It depicts her mother recalling her childhood days while f acial expression at the old photograph of hers (mentioned in the first stanza). In the put out stanza, the poets adult life is described in which her mother is not with her anymore. She has been dead for almost twelve years. The stanza depicts the poets looking at the same photograph and recollecting her mothers laughter. The loss of her mother puts her in show grief. She has no words to describe the terrible pain of her mothers death.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Effect of Eating Fast Food Essay

In the past, passel in the capital of Indonesia metropolis always ate healthy and fresh food. But today, umteen throng like to run through quick food such as pizza, hamburgers, and deep-fried chicken. Many reasons why sight prefer to consume turbulent food. This canvass will explain some negative effects of fast food. in that location are several reasons why fast food grows quickly in Jakarta. The first reason is changing lifestyles in society. In Jakarta, many populate are working in offices or companies. The workers do not defend much time to search for food because the working hours are in truth solid.Advertising is an other reason. Jakarta is a big city that with advertising always informs new products to society. For example, internet and television report both day about development of different types of fast food. All of these ads limit people to buy fast food. Moreover, price of fast food is very cheap. Therefore, every day many people buy Hamburger, Pizza and ot her fast foods.However, fast food has negative effects on the people of Jakarta. The greatest influence is the effect on health. It can be seen from many people in Jakarta became fat because of these foods. As a result, these people will become less productive and have a insure such as heart disease and diabetes. Another consequence of the fast food is losing tradition of eating together with family at home. Now, children and adults rarely eat together at home.As a result, parents and children seldom communicate individually other. The next effect is on the economy. Fast food is not excessively expensive, more expensive when cooking at home however, all fast food comes from foreign-owned franchise company, so the benefits of these foods for foreigners.In generally, I think that a lot of people consume fast food in Jakarta because of the lifestyle, the influence of advertising, and low prices. However, I believe that these foods have serious consequences in the community such as h ealth problems, loss of traditional family meals, and scotch problems. Therefore, people in Jakarta should leave fast food for a better life.

Analysis of Toyota’s Marketing Strategy Essay

Surendra Bhandari1 lendable at http//papers. ssrn. com/sol3/papers. cfm? abstract_id=1624068 Abstract Toyota was complete in 1937 in Japan. First time it introduced its crossroad Corona in the US in 1965. By the 70s, Toyota was the popular import brand in the US. During the 80s, it started manufacturing vehicles in the US. In 2006, it had landwidely pose the second largest elevator car seller and third largest car sellers in the US having much than fifteen percent grocery sh atomic number 18. It is estimated that by 2008 it is passing game to be the spell unrivalled car producer and seller two in the US and crosswise the world.This profound success of Toyota is associated with its or so accomplished grocery store system. The discipline of Toyota nonably proves that how all-important(prenominal) is mart system in the invigoration of a federation to be a securities industry leader. 1. heraldic bearing Toyotas billing statement is as fol grims To sustain sustainable return by providing the best customer experience and dealer support. (Toyota, 2007) Customer gratification is the operate force for Toyota, which inspires it to provide the highest quality growths and services. Kaizen is a word that Toyota upholds, which means persisting improvement of its technology, products, and services.In short, Kaizen for customer satisfaction is Toyotas mission. Toyota besides explains its mission as follows 1 Dr. Bhandari tooshie be contacted at bhandarisurendragmail. com round here our values atomic number 18 just like yours. We are tight working. We are active in community. We are creating jobs. We celebrate our diversity. We are structure unfermenteder squirter cars. And this is just the beginning. (Toyota, 2007) 2. Distinctive Competencies Among others, iii characteristic competencies of Toyota are remarkable. These distinctive competencies appeal the consumers, build trust with them, and make them satisfied.These competenci es are as follows i. general Economy Car Toyota is best kn give birth for popular economy car. It has successfully branded the concept of popular economy car, by producing cars matching to the concept. It has garnered its success by exchange the concept to the consumer. It has also become profoundly successful in segmenting, targeting, and postal serviceing. As a result, found on the pricing pass overs generated by over ten billion visitors, proscribed of discover ten cars, three are Toyotas Toyota Camry (No. 2), Toyota Corolla (No. 4), and Toyota Avalon (No. 8). (Kelly Blue Book, 2007) It produces eight varieties of cars.Among them, the prices for the four varieties cars track down 10,000. 00 US $, three varieties range 15,000. 00 US $, and bingle variety ranges more or less over 20,000. 00 US $. ii. Cutting-edge Technology Toyota simply did non dispel to the concept of popular economy car. This concept could have soft turned into product maturity and decline. But T oyota continuously engaged in improving technology design, looks, comfort, displace efficiency, environmental friendliness, and other technical improvements. For example, Toyota Corolla was kickoff introduced in Japan in 1966 and in the US in 1968 as a first extension Toyota Corolla.Since then roughly in either three socio-economic classs it is beness developed and groceryed in a bare-ass-fashioned model. By 2006, tenth generation of Toyota Corolla was already launched with significant technological improvements. Toyotas cross cars can be taken as another example. It started producing crossbreedization cars in 1995 however till 1999 Japan was 1 the only food food marketplace for its cross cars. Coming to 2005, it became successful to capture a large orchis of US market. nowadays, it is selling close s yetty five percent of its hybrid cars alone in the US market. iii. Low Operating Cost wherefore consumers purchase Toyota?The simple answer is that Toyotas car s are distinctive with the properties of low operating(a) cost. For example, a survey carried out by Toplin Strategy convention in 2007 has revealed that 73% of Prius owners had bought Toyota Prius beca exercise of financial incentive to purchase the vehicle much(prenominal) as lower sticker price or lower operating cost than other choices. ( grocery storeing Green, 2007) Similarly, establish on 45% highway driving and 55% urban center driving with annual 15,000 miles Toyota Prius has been proved to be the most fuel in effect(p) car than any of its competitors such as Honda civic Hybrid, crossing Escape Hybrid, and Lexus GS 450.( fuel Economy, 2008). 3. Trends / Conditions Among many other factors, demand for elan vital efficient and greener cars, demand for low operating cost, and demand for high level of prophylactic and comfort are the most significant factors that are influencing the trends and conditions of automobile marketplace. Todays automobile sector can be best dep ict as one of the sectors that are trying utmost to respond these important marketplace demands. base on these demands, in that location is both good and mischievous news for the auto industry, including for Toyota.Good news is that there is surprisingly big-chested vehicle sale in the market. The bad news is that some of the prima(p) automakers are shedding thousands more jobs. Some of the automakers are also intercommunicate downward market trends. These trends are important because, automobiles are responsible for 13. 3 cardinal US jobs, and US $ 675 billion tax income in the US economy. 2 On a yr-on-year basis, Toyota sales has surged 10. 5%, General repulses Corp. has showed a year-on-year improvement posting 12.1% sales gain, and Chrysler has taken a 15% year-on-year sales dive, whereas Ford Motor Co. has stayed mostly flat, down 0. 5%. In terms of global sales, Toyota is in second position following GM. In terms of sales in the US market, Toyota is in third positio n having 14. 9% of market allots in 2006. Union of concerned scientists in their 2007 report state that Toyota has regained second place overall in the environmental rankings as good and is the only automaker to make consistent improvements on its global warming sum since 2001.Toyota has the best global warming performance in six out of ten classes and fall apart than comely performance in the rest. If past trends continue, Toyota may overtake Hondas global warming score within two years. Doing so testament require continued investment funds in hybrids. Globally, 53 zillions new cars are sold in 2007. discover of them, 15. 9 gazillions are sold alone in the US. In 2007, some the world, it is estimated that there impart be 806 million cars and light trucks on the road, out of them 244 million will be in operation in the US alone.Currently, these vehicles burn some 260 billion gallons of fuel yearly and by 2020, the number of cars and light trucks is estimated to r for eac h one above 1 billion. The years of 2004 done 2007 will long be remembered as a pivotal period in the automobile industry as during this period throttle prices started a sea change among US consumers that is finally creating a significant demand for fuel efficient vehicles. As a result, this has lead to the phenomenal demand for Toyotas Prius hybrid car.Responding to the demands of consumers Toyota has expanded its investments in Georgetown, Kentucky plant to enable to manufacture 48,000 hybrid cars yearly. Ford launched its first hybrids, and other carmakers, including GM, were greatly encouraged in their own efforts to bring more hybrids to the market. However, response to hybrids from U. S. makers has been lukewarm at best. Consumers 3 primarily arent as impressed with U. S. hybrid technology as they are with that of Toyota models. In short, while the US based Big Three struggle, Toyota is being more strategic.It has increased its capacity to manufacture over 1. 5 million veh icles yearly in North America. On a global scale, the company plans to sell 10. 4 million vehicles by 2009, up from 8. 8 million in 2006. The big news is that Toyota is most likely surpassing GM in global sales by 2008, making Toyota the worlds largest carmaker. 4. Organizational Objectives Toyota has set seven fundamental objectives. Among them, to dedicate in providing clean and safe products and enhance the quality of life e verywhere through better production and services is the main objective of Toyota.Similarly, its other objectives are to comply the law, language and culture of every nation with fair unified activities work to economic and social development of communities somewhat the world through corporate activities nominate and develop advanced technologies and provide outstanding products and services to customers boost individuals creativity and teamwork value pursue growth through innovative management and work with business partners for mutual benefits. To ach ieve these objectives and their trenchant implementation, it has clearly set fourteen principles that are widely considered as Toyotas Ways.Based on these principles, Toyota takes management decisions on a long-term philosophy, even at the expenses of a short-term financial goal. It believes in a continuous process flow to bring problems to the surface, uses visual control so that no problems are hidden, uses pull system to avoid overproduction, and works like tortoise and not the hare. It standardizes the tasks and processes as the foundation for continuous improvement and empowers employees by which it further enhances its tycoon to use only reliable and thoroughly tested technology that serves the customers. 4.Similarly, its organisational objectives are further substantiated by its idea of developing elisional mountain and teams who follow the philosophy of Toyota, respect the take inwork of partners and suppliers, and learn from the practices. It believes in making decisi ons slowly by consensus thoroughly considering all options and once the decisions are taken, it implements the decisions rapidly. On lead of that, by becoming a learning organization through relentless reflection and continuous improvement of its products and services, Toyota can be exemplified as a case that has achieved its organizational objectives successfully.5. Strategic Business Unit Toyota offers energy efficient, green, and popular economy cars, SUVs/Vans, hybrids, and light trucks with safety and comfort measures in place. It produces more than two dozen varieties of products. All of its products are globally very popular. Its products are sold in over 200 countries across the globe. On bring in of that, the US is the biggest market for Toyota. For example, till 2006 it had sold more than 7 million Toyota Corollas alone in the US. In the financial year 2006-07, in coalesced terms, it sold its products of 226. 06 billion US $ (23,948.00 billion yen) and earned net income of 15. 17 billion US $ (1,644. 0 billion yen). (Toyota, 2006) In 2006, Toyota was engaged in a variety of projects designed to solidify its foundations while continuing to grow. On the product front besides its two dozen already launched products, Lexus has launched its new flagship model, the LS, and the new global Camry went on sale. In manufacturing, several new projects were started around the world. In May 2006, manufacturing of the Camry began in Guangzhou, China, while in the United States, the Kentucky plant, which in October 2006 celebrated 20 years of production, has started manufacturing the first Toyota hybrid vehicle to be made in North America, the Camry Hybrid.In November 2006, the Texas plant began producing the new Tundra truck, a key vehicle in Toyotas North American lineup. 5 In Japan, Toyota Motor Kyushu, Inc. has begun full-scale operations at its engine factory, and Toyota Motor Tohoku Co. , Ltd. has increased its manufacturing capacity. In human resources dev elopment sector, following the establishment of the Asia peace-loving Global Production Center in Thailand in August 2005, Toyota has established the North American Production Center in the U.S. in February 2006, and the European Global Production Center in the United Kingdom in March 2006. Established as branches of the Global Production Center in Japan, these were created to spread Toyotas manufacturing knowledge and skills throughout the world in footstep with the rapid growth of Toyotas overseas manufacturing. In R&D side, Toyota has focused its efforts on three key areas environment, safety, and energy. It has made a special(prenominal) effort in the area of the environment by expanding its lineup of hybrid vehicles, and has worked on R&D relating to plug-in hybrid.In addition, as part of Toyotas efforts to respond to the diversification of energy, in 2007 Toyota has introduced a flex fuel vehicle in the Brazilian market that will run on vitamin C% bio-ethanol fuel. From th is point on, based on the philosophy of providing the in force(p) car, in the unspoiled place, at the proper time, and in accordance with the infrastructure and customer ask of each region, Toyota is striving for promoting efforts to develop environmentally friendly technology and vehicles. 6. capital of Massachusetts Consulting Group Matrix Based on the Boston Matrix, the market website of Toyota is Healthy.To support this statement, three products are chosen here Camry, Prius, & Corolla. These all fall into the category of sense datum as they are holding high market share and high market growth. All these three products are well established and the growth is exciting. These are creating fantastic opportunities. The only challenge is Toyota postulate to maintain its Stars. And, it seems that for at least a couple of years Toyota will maintain its Stars. 6 Toyota Corolla It is a compact car, very popular throughout the world since it was first introduced in 1966.In 1997 it became the bestselling car in the world in 2004 it was the number one selling car in the US in its segment with over 30 million sold as of 2007. In the US alone, more than 7 million Toyota Corolla cars have been sold. everywhere the past 40 years, one Toyota Corolla car has been sold on average every 40 seconds. Today, it is manufactured in 16 countries in the world. It has been almost steadfast in face-lifting each generation after two years, and replenishment it with an all-new model every four year.As a result, it has brought in market its 10th generation model in 2006 in Japan and has been introduced to the US market since October 2007. This product strategy of Toyota Corolla has helped it to be continuously in the Star quadruple. Toyota Camry It is a mid-size car manufactured in the US, Australia, China, and Japan. In some markets, the top range Camry models are seen as executive cars. The Camry has been the bestselling car in the US, its largest consumer market, for lodge o f the last ten years starting in 1997, with the only exception in 2001.The first generation Camry was introduced in 1983 and in 2007 the sixth generation Camry has been introduced. The sixth-generation Toyota Camry is the first generation in which it has been available as a gasoline/electric hybrid. EPA fuel economy estimates for the 2007 Toyota Camry Hybrid 38 MPG in city and 40 MPG on highway. Toyota Prius It is a hybrid electric vehicle and one of the first such vehicles to be massproduced and marketed. The Prius first went on sale in Japan in 1997, and worldwide in 2001. By the end of 2003, nearly 160,000 units had been produced for sale in Japan, Europe, and North America.The Prius has won several awards, including the Car of the course of instruction Japan in 1997/98, the North American Car of the Year 2004, and the European Car of the Year 2005. EPA has recently revised environmental standards and the Prius 2007 has been acknowledged as the most fuel efficient car sold in th e US. Its market share in the US is growing each year. In 7 2000, Prius market share in the US was very negligible simply by 2005 out of its total sale the US alone had consumed intimately seventy percent. 7. Organizational Strategy for Growth Toyota has already got market over 200 countries across the globe.Only in 2006, it sold 8. 52 million of its products and has planned to be a number one car producing and selling company by 2008. This ambitious strategy of market penetration is associated with its proficient demographic and psychographic segmentation and targeting. It has successfully got high level of localization in the mind of the consumers with its brand and distinctive competencies as discussed above disseminating through coordinated market dialogue (IMC) techniques. Toyota has diversified its product with a brand of right car in the right place.For example, it has introduced a flex fuel vehicle in the Brazilian market that will run on degree Celsius% bio-ethanol fu el. It has introduced hybrid electric car (Prius) mostly for the market in the US, Japan, and EU. On top of that in each two year it improves looking of its product and in each four year transforms model into new one. By upholding this strategy of product development, Toyota has become successful in managing product life cycle, more specifically it introduces product and keeps the product growing without letting them to be matured and decline.Its exceptional organizational strategy for growth is importantly nurtured by its strategy working with around 522 subsidiaries around the world and successfully creating a wider market chain around the globe. Another way of Toyotas organizational strategy for growth is that it reads the public mind through its research division that monitors the industry and keeps tabs on demographic and economic developments. Its mission to predict consumer trends and create a lineup of cars and trucks to capitalize on them. Each professional is expect to sp end time out in the field talking 8 to car buyers.The Japanese have a name for it genchi genbutsu go to the motion picture and confirm the actual happenings. 8. Market Share While looking at the market share of Toyota in the US market since 1980 to 2006, it is realized that its market share is continuously growing. For example, in the 80s Toyotas market share in the US was near 5% and that has risen to above 15% by 2006. So in a twenty-five years time Toyota has outstandingly tripled its market share in the US. On the other hand, market share of its three major competitors GM, Ford, and Chrysler is gradually declining. In the 80s GMs market share in the US was above forty-five percent.But by 2006 GMs market share has shrunk to 24%. Similarly, in the 80s Ford had more than twenty-three percent market share but by 2006 its market share has come down to sixteen percent. By being successful in increasing market share, Toyota has become the worlds most profitable automaker. In 2006, it sold 2. 5 million cars and trucks in the US market alone. Because, Toyota is already bigger than Chrysler in the US and is about to pass Ford by 2008, Toyotas presence in the US is now so prominent that the 3,322 business leaders surveyed by outcome have named Toyota as one of Americas most respect companies.On the financial side, Toyotas net revenue for the fiscal year 2007 is 23. 94 trillion yen, which is an increase of 13. 8 percent compared to the fiscal year of 2006. In 2007, its operating income has increased by 19. 2 percent to 2. 23 trillion yen. Its net income has increased by 19. 8 percent to 1. 64 trillion yen. All of these figures marked record high. It is estimated that the consolidated vehicle sales for the fiscal year 2008 will be 8. 89 million units. The revenue for the fiscal year 2008 is estimated to be 25. 00 trillion yen.While we compare its net income from 2004 to 2006, it is clearly shown that its net income is increasing each year. For example its net 9 i ncome for the year 2004 was 1,162,998 million yen that increased to 1,171,260 million yen in 2005, and in 2006 that further increased to 1,372,180 million yen. 9. Elements of Marketing Strategy Toyotas segmentation and target market is guided by its philosophy of right car in the right place. Toyota has employed both demographic and psychographic form of multiple segmentations and targeted its market on that basis.For example, it has segmented all the countries across the globe as its market. But has also identified its focused market such as the US, Canada, EU, Australia, China, India, and Indonesia. On top of that US is its first priority being the biggest market. It is because, US consumes almost 30% of its products. Its products range with different prices from US $ 10,000. 00 to 30,000. 00 plus. The economy class cars are targeted to lower and middle level income hatful and the luxury cars are targeted to higher middle and higher income group people.With a variety of product a ttributes it targets different age group and professional groups of people. For example, for chromosomal mutation people it has sport cars. For environmentally sensitive people it has Prius environmentally green car. Likewise, it has offered 100% bio-ethanol fuel car in Brazil, where is bio-ethanol potential. Likewise, those who are truck lovers or professional who need trucks, it offers them different variety of trucks. In fact, its marketing strategy segmentation, targeting, and positioning is nurtured by its variety of offers and product attributes.Further, it has designed its market strategy at different levels global level, regional level, and national level based on the assessment of customer needs and choices. Toyota focuses its products in market with comfort, kindness, and excitement. Toyota claims that its products accede ecology and emotions. One of the key factors for designing segmentation and targeting, Toyotas summary is always based on the condition of market, economy, purchasing 10 capacity, and consumers choices. Based on these factors Toyota is launching its global motorization strategy with leading-edge technology.Likewise, Toyota has upheld a very strong promotional strategy using integrated market communication (IMC) tool. On top of that, Toyota blog (http//blog. toyota. com) is another very successful weapon of advertising and promotion. On its blog, Toyota closely pays attention to the voices of its customers and provides responses to a large core of inquiry. 10. Elements of Market Planning Toyota has adopted three important elements in its market planning green, safety, and low operating cost. Being based on these three important factors, Toyota has become successful to garner the market opportunity.On the whole, there seem more opportunities for Toyota than threats. However, there are some threats that cannot be denied. Opportunities Toyotas market share is growing each year. From about 5 percent market share in 1986, it has acquired more than 15 percent market share in the US in 2006. Its competitors market share is declining each year, which is the biggest opportunity for Toyota. Toyota and its competitors have similar segmentation and targeting but in creating positioning Toyota has come off much ahead than its competitors because of its products attributes.Further, it is also ahead of its competitors in technology front. For example, it is the first automobile producer that introduced hybrid in the market. Today, the market share for its hybrid is growing exponentially. At the same time, hybrid products of its competitors are not successful. Threats Besides opportunities in the marketplace, Toyotas most illustrated product Prius has not got much success in Europe and its market share is declining in Japan itself. Further, its competitors GM, Ford, and Chrysler have become more strategic and are being focused on 11 from cutting-edge technology to leading-edge technology.Toyota is growing with comp etition to pass the GM but still GM is the number one automobile in the US and the globe. 11. Conclusion From the perspective of marketing strategy, Toyota can be taken as a company that has successfully achieved its mission statement, successfully branded its distinctive competencies, and profoundly achieved its organizational objectives. This success is based on its successful market strategy. This is corroborated by the fact that all of its products study in this paper (Toyota Corolla, Camry, and Prius) do fall into Star quadruple downstairs the Boston Matrix.In quintessence, it can be said that Toyota is an outstanding case for learning how to build and implement market strategy, get penetration in the market, manage product life cycle, uphold market positioning, best use of integrated market communication (IMC), and branding its product in the prospect of the customer. In short, Toyota is a notable example that proves how important is marketing strategy in the life of a comp any and managers.References CNNMoney, (2007), Americas outperform Car Companies, Mrach 7, 2007 available on http//money. htm visited on Nov. 20, 2007. Fuel Economy, (2008), 2008 Hybrid Vehicles, available on , http//www. fueleconomy. gov/feg/hybrid_sbs. shtml , visited on Nov. 22, 2007. Kelly Blue Book, (2007), The Most Researched Sedans, available on http//www. kbb. com/kbb/ReviewsAndRatings/default. aspx? trid=3&gclid=CKrS8rHMgI8CFTa oGgodgyqT2wManufacturerId=49&ModelId=286 visited on Nov. 27, 2007. Kotler, Phlipe & Keller,Kevin Lane (2006), Marketing Management, scholar Hall, 12th ed.12 Marketing Green, (2007), Hybrids Shift into the Mass Market, available on http//marketinggreen. wordpress. com/2007/04/29/hybrids-shift-into-the-mass-market/ visited on Nov. 20, 2007. Plunket Research, (2007), Automotive Industry Overview, available on http//www. plunkettresearch. com/Industries/AutomobilesTrucks/AutomobilesandTr ucksStatis tics/tabid/90/Default. aspx , visited on Nov. 19, 2007. Spirou, Patricia (2007), Three Step Process in Determining the Market/Position Initiatives in Strategic Planning, available on BB.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

A Narrative Report on the Mass Training for Grade Essay

The K-12 Curriculum for the division 3 teachers was indeed a very successful one.The training was goed with smiling faces shown by each equatingticipant. This is a manifestation that the Grade 3 teachers argon unbidden and ever ready to embrace the mission tasked by God and that is to machine extensivey the K-12 Curriculum with your minds, hearts, and souls. The Mass Training for GRADE 3 teachers on the Basic Education Curriculum started on whitethorn 18, 2014 in the afternoon. Delegates from the assorted schools in the fraction of Tuguegarao City were made to register before the start of the sessions. aft(prenominal) which, an commencement course of study was started with a prayer led by Mrs. Juliet B. Alan, tame teacher 1, followed by the singing of the subject anthem with Mrs. Liezel Santos, Master Teacher 1, conducting. An opening program started the one-week long training.see more tale report on homeroom pta meetingDr. Benito Alipio, the Asst. Schools Division Super intendent of the division gave his opening remarks and he accentuate that a twenty -first century teachers must learn, bury and relearn the skills needed to produce a twenty-first century learners who are equipped with 21st century skills such as information media and engine room skills, learning an innovation skills, communication skills and life career skills. Dr. Gilbert N. Tong, the Schools Division Superintendent, CESO VI, gave also his inspirational message. He really inspired us, teachers, to do our function in developing a 21st century learners who are actual with adequate knowledge and skills that readily translate into performance.Dr. Rommel Costales, the Education Program executive program in Filipino, discussed about the K to 12 Curriculum. He introduced the Secretarys message on K to 12 Updates and he set ahead emphasized on some important issues regarding the curriculum. Mrs. Vilma Darisan, Principal II, of Tagga-Dadda Elementary Schools, was the last loudspeak er system and she talked about the Assessment. She discussed comprehensively her topic. We ended the Day 0 full of enthusiasm.Day 1 started with a simple program led by Northeast District.It was started with a prayer then followed by the singing of the national anthem. The delegates in every district introduced themselves with their own creative way of launching that made the session enjoyable. Dr. Janette M. Dulin, Principal IV of Linao Elementary Schools, lectured on the Grade Three Learners. She gave us informative lecture which made us clearer apprehension on the characteristics of grade III 21st. century learners. The participants performed diametrical activities during her lecture. After her lecture, she sub-divided the firm group into 2. Each group went on their respective assignments. Class A started their session on Leveling of Expectations done by Mrs. Lou Marie Miguel, Principal II of Larion Alto. She gave emphasis on the expected attitudes that each participants must possess.On the some other group, Class B, was led by Mrs. Liezel Santos and disused the same topic. Mrs. Juliet B. Alan, Master Teacher I of Annafunan Elementary School, lectured comprehensively about the Araling Panlipunan subject. The participants restlessly participated on the different activities during her session with them. Mrs. Eleanor Cacacho and Mrs. Zenaida Rivamora, EPS I in Science and Social Studies, with Dr. Rommel Costales, EPS II in Filipino witnessed her lecture. Mrs. Lou Marie Miguel, Principal II of Larion Alto, lectured the Science subject. She really gave us a substantial lecture. Mrs. Analyn Quilang, Principal II of Pengue Ruyu, tackled on the Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao. She delivered also her lecture with enthusiasm. On Day 2, Class A had their MTB with Dr. Janette Dulin as the first speaker spell on Class B, Mrs. Catalon, lectured on melody. Both speakers delivered their topic energetically and substantially.On the same day, Mrs. Evangeline Palejo, tackl ed about the English subject in Class A while Mrs. Analyn Quilang lectured on ESP in Class B with the heading of Dr. Norma Guillermo, Chief Education Program supervisory program in Elementary Division. Dr. Guillermo felt up happy with the positive feedbacks she received on the performances of the trainers as well as the participants. Day 3 (May 21, 2014), the session was chaired by the participants of the West District. Same advance activities were made to start the days session. The first lecturer was Dr. Janette Dulin. She move her topic regarding the MTB in Class A intelligently as manifested with the active participation of the trainees.On the same time,Mrs. Vilma Darisan presented her topic in Math. She discussed her topic sky-high in Class B. The trainees listened and focused themselves intently during her discussion. After which, Mrs. Catalon, and Mrs Vilma Darisan lectured on Music and Mathematics in Class A and b respectively. With their expertise in presenting their su bjects, they and the trainees enjoyed together their sessions. Liezel Trumata, the trainer in Health, then followed by Mrs. Juliet Alan who tackled about the Araling Panlipunan in Class B also discussed their topics intelligently. On the fourth day ( May 22, 2014), the first lecturers are Mrs. Liezel Trumata and Mr. J. Attaban who taught Health and P.E. respectively in Class A and B. Luckily, Mrs. Santos, was observed by Dr. Venturada Durian and Mr. Gayagoy both DepEd officials in the division while Mrs. Evangeline Palejo discussed her topic in English in Class B.Demonstration tenet was done right after the last trainers had done their lectures and it was done in the afternoon and continued on the fifth day. The following demonstration teachers were Mrs. Emily Guiquing, MTB, Mrs. Emma Calimag, Math, Mrs. Norolaine Cabalos, Araling Panlipunan, Mrs. Salvacion Cabalza, Science, and Mrs. Jane Carino, P. E. tout ensemble the demonstration teachers performed well and showed their own cr eative way in teaching method their subject matters. The pupils were responsive and actively participated in the different activities tasked by the teachers. After the demo-teaching, a critiquing was made to the teachers with their respective trainers. The training was completed when Dr. Rommel Costales, Education Supervisor II in Filipino, the last lecturer, presented his topic about the Commitment Building.He elaborated further his topic by asking the trainees to note mint four key words about their leanings on the k to 12 Curriculum with the use of a paper airplane. Everyone enjoyed much the activity. He further strengthened the leanings of the participants through a video clips about a teacher-learner relationships which stirred the hearts of each participants. As we went through day by day with this training, we were enriched and enlightened with the new insights and concepts that were needed to achieve the Goal of the K-12 Curriculum and that is to manufacture the 21st Cen tury teachers producing multitude 21st Century learners the hope of the approaching generation that could help our department, the Department of Education, be the topmost agency in our country and makeour country progressive, globally competitive and at par with other countries. The training ended with a simple closing program but with full baggage of learning on the part of the trainees as well as the trainers.

A & P versus The Widow of Ephesus

Women live with always been playing apprehension up with men. Society has always pictured women in a room that revolves around them being sh tout ensembleow, materialistic, licentious, and willing to do anything to appeal to the opposite sex. In the stories of A & P and The Widow of Ephesus, it is no different. In fact the thought is accentuated in both stories. Women argon portrayed as pathetic beings with informative yet unjustified backgrounds about their incompetence to change course economic aid or a large(p) man.The female genre is perceived as bingle wit a shallow demeanor and weakness because of their inability to resist desires and lack the maturity to act sensibly. + Women continuously seek out the attention of men. In The Widow of Ephesus, by dint of the character of a widow, women atomic number 18 portrayed as beings who cannot resist a handsome man. Her fidelity was so chousen that women came from far and near just to get a glimpse of her(paragraph 2), and make up after her husband died, she stayed by his side. However, the authors true odorings about women were revealed when a handsome soldier was brought into the picture.After bringing food conquer to the widow in her husbands tomb for some time, this woman stopped resisting, and she accepted the young soldiers manage just as she had accepted his food (paragraph 11). In A & P, the young girls were first portrayed as passel who were somewhat so-called when it came to their innocence, which is the exact opposite depiction as in The Widow of Ephesus. They be looked mint upon for their lack of clothing and illustrated as creatures that were only visually intriguing.The computerized tomography in the store is obviously an experienced girl-watcher because he said the intact store was uniform a pinball machine and I didnt know which tunnel theyd come out of (paragraph 12). So, he was unmistakably interested in the fact that they were wearing bating suits. In the end however, Samm y sticks up for the innocence that all girls delineate and quits his telephone circuit at the store after his chief embarrasses the girls by yelling at them for their outfits. He is depicted as expansive for his ways and will prise girls, now that he has seen what it does not to respect them.The social worlds described in each story present an edify background for the behavior of each character. In the Widow of Ephesus, the woman is unrivaled of faith and loyalty to a man whom she had love for her intact life. She was so in love with this man that she accompanied the dead body righteousness into the tomb, and after the coffin was placed in the vault she began a lookout man weeping and wailing day and night (paragraph 2). This gives the effect of how shallow women are to the author when, in one short period of time, this woman sleeps with some other man because of his looks.When referring to A & P, these three girls live by the beach, so wearing a bathing suit is perfectly normal. However, when the girls are pink-slipped from the store in foregoing of strangers, they are embarrassed and made to feel inferior. A man made a woman feel like she was inferior because of how she was dressed. And, although Sammy was going to be looked down upon, he decided that him quitting his job was the necessary thing to do because when you begin a gesture its disgraceful not to go through with it (paragraph 31).The embarrassment that the widow and the three girls matte after they were condemned for their behavior warrants sympathy. The Widow was a woman who spent her entire life with one man and her grieving was well known end-to-end many different places. She lost the one man that she had ever loved and she couldnt bear to live with that compassion and sense of security that her husband brought to her. To have such a feeling of security and safety and so set down it, is a heartache that sanctions sympathy and pity.In A & P, the three teenagers were looked down u pon for what they are wearing and how they are presenting themselves. They are embarrassed in front of customers whom they have neer even met by a man who in like manner a complete stranger because they are displaying themselves in an inappropriate manner. They are made to feel as if they are doing something wrong, in a bounderish and ignorant way, which results in commiseration by the reader. Women are constantly looked down upon for their actions and outward appearances.It is obvious that the author of The Widow of Ephesus thinks very lowly of women through his portraying of the entire female gender as shallow, trifling people who base things only on what they see. It is also clear that the author of A & P is one who thinks somewhat better about women than the other author, tho still characterizes them as people who use their looks to get attention and then when they get the wrong attention, girls say that guys are the pigs. Its all a topic of the battle of the sexes, and in the future, there might quite possibly never be a winner.

Monday, February 25, 2019

Skeletal Muscle Undergoes Repair and Regenaration Throughout

21 Coursework R Mini-Review Topic Selected Topic 2 Skeletal ponderousness undergoes fastening and regenaration throughout normal life. Write a review on the bringes involved, emphasizing the role of artificial major planet cells. Muscle Cell Regeneration and the dissemble of Ageing Introduction Throughout normal life, osteal bodybuilders undergo meliorate and conversion in result to injury through a process involving several sequential steps. A very important role in this change is played by satellite cells, which are small mononucleate progenitor cells found in mature heftinessman builder tissues.In this review, we are sack to explore the consequences of ageing in satellite cell descends and their king to maintain and preserve muscle tissue. Steps involved when emaciated muscle is dam age The homeostatic process that allows muscle regeneration in response to an injury stimulus, involves four interrelated steps degeneration, inflammation, regeneration and rem odelling repair. When myofibers are damaged, extracellular calcium flows into the cell, initiating proteolysis, which causes necrosis.The necrosis of myofibers brings about an inflammatory response where neutrophils and macrophages infiltrate the injure place. Neutrophils are the first to arrive they remove cell debris by releasing free radicals and proteases as easily as secreting pro-inflammatory cytokines that puddle the arrival of macrophages. There two different classes of macrophages arriving at the injured site M1 ( deporting CD68) and M2 (expressing CD163). The M1 class is responsible for producing a high concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which countenance further tissue inflammation.Arriving next, is the M2 class of macrophages that induce angiogenesis and tissue remodelling and repair, by trip stem cells. This phase of inflammation is critical to the muscle regeneration process. Experiments substantiate shown that if the inflammation response is inhibited, then muscle repair cannot occur at all. Nevertheless, there must be a balance between scant(predicate) and excessive inflammation response. The regenerative phase is achieved by the activation, proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells that meld together to form multinucleated myotubes.This is regulated by the presence of a number of growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and others. The closing phase of the regenerative process is remodelling and repair and it involves the remodelling of connective tissue, angiogenesis and functional rec everyplacey of the skeletal muscle. How does this happen? Well, once the muscle is injured, there is an excessive production of collagens that rear scar tissue to form.This is so-called fibrosis formation is worked up by transforming growth factor-? 1 (TGF-? 1), which plays a major role in this cascade. This phase is over once the injured muscle has been replaced by a functional and contractile apparatus. Figure 1 pic Fig. 1 shows the steps involved for a satellite cell to form a myotube. (www. bioscience. org) The role of satellite cells Satellite cells (identified employ electron microscopy) are located under the basal lamina and are a type of muscle stem cells.They are present in muscle tissue in the quiescent form and can be activated by both physiological stimuli (such as extensive exercise), as well as pathological conditions (injury or degenerative disease). Their main function is to lay down a population of myoblasts that can fuse with each other or with other myofibers and differentiate, so as to repair muscle tissue. Both quiescent and active satellite cells express the transcription factor Pax-7 that is thought to suit transcription and maintain proliferation.Even though the role of Pax-7 is not completely understood, it is evident that without it, we would not have satellite cells. In fact, an experiment showed that mice lacking Pax-7, did not survive beyond 2 weeks. In addition, activated satellite cells express a protein called myogenic regulatory factor (MyoD), which is a crucial factor in regulating the differentiation of muscle cells. Impact of ageing in muscle degeneration Hypothetically, even though the number of satellite cells decreases with age, the few cells rest should be enough to initiate the regenerative mechanism.However, experiments have shown that the surrounding tissue and systemic environment to which the satellite cells were placed, were far more important factors for muscle regeneration than the number of cells present. This hypothesis was supported by the fact that old muscle tissue could be regenerated when it was placed in a young animal, notwithstanding the opposite did not occur. Therefore, the hypothesis that the decrease in satellite cell numbers due to ageing was the major factor that affected regeneration was proved to be wrong. Figure 2 pic Fig. illustrates the difference between a no rmal myofiber and a regenerating myofiber. (www. bioscience. org) Conclusion All in all, sarcopenia alters the regeneration and repair of muscle, which can cause structural abnormalities. Ageing causes a hammy decrease in satellite cell numbers and reduces their ability to repair damaged muscle. Even though young stem cells applied to aged or damaged skeletal muscle seem to be smart for therapeutic applications, we must gain a better understanding of satellite cell biology in order to use regenerative medicine to delicacy sarcopenia.Bibliography Carosio, S. , Berardinelli, M. G. , Aucello, M. , Musaro, A. (2011) Ageing research reviews. Impact of ageing on muscle cell regeneration. 10 35-42 Kierszenbaum, A. L. , (2007) Histology and cell biology An introduction to pathology (2nd Ed. ). Philadelphia Mosby. 7 197-210 Crowe, J. , Brdashaw, T. (2010) Chemistry for the Biosciences. The all important(p) concepts. (2nd Ed) Oxford University Press. 9(3) 270-272 Satellite Cells. Online. Available from http//www. brown. edu/Courses/BI0032/adltstem/sc. tm Accessed 6 declination 2011 Zammit, S. P. , et al (2006) Pax7 and myogenic increase in skeletal muscle satellite cells. Online. Available from http//jcs. biologists. org/content/119/9/1824 Accessed 7 December 2011 Seime, A. , Caron, A. Z. , Gremier, G. (2009) Frontiers in BiosciencesAdvances in myogenic cell transplantation and skeletal muscle tissue engineering. Online. Available from http//www. bioscience. org/2009/v14/af/3431/fulltext. asp? bframe=figures. htm&doi=yes Accessed 7 December 2011 Word count 747

Valuable Traditional Events on New Year’s Day

A racial gathering or an ethnic group is defined by its culture and religion. This is be dumbfound the collective actions of peck who belong to the same group argon guided by that groups cultural values and religious beliefs. The global community consists of some(prenominal) racial and ethnic groups with polar sets of cultural values and religious beliefs.The differences in these beliefs explain why the great unwashed every over the world do non dress alike (Muslim women argon prohibited from wearing thin clothes which are popular among western women) do not encounter the same sustenance (unlike Christians, Muslims do not eat pork) and do not treat atomic number 53 another in the same manner (western women are eachowed more freedom than Muslim women). Some judgment of convictions these differences are minor and near(a) ignored, thereby facilitating relationships crosswise cultures.At other times, however, such differences become rattling antagonistic and irreconcilab le as to develop into major irritants and even cause wars. Since people from unalike cultures rec each(prenominal) and behave differently, customss also vary across cultures. Traditions consist of the customs and practices which people conduct important enough to circulate down from propagation to generation in order to preserve their join cultural values and beliefs. Every culture has several important traditions.In Korea, for example, one of the most important traditions is the manner of celebrating the biggest event of every division New stratums Day. Seol-Nal in the Korean language, the celebration starts with all Koreans, children and adults alike, greeting one another with the usual Happy New yr greeting. Actually, the actual Korean greeting, when literally translated into English, means I wish you have a great category and good luck this year. Koreans greet one another while bowing their heads. Children, particularly, are enjoying this bowing and greeting traditio n. musical composition the tradition is for elder people to give their advice to their family members who bow to them, when children do the bowing, tradition dictates that the elders should give them favored money. This tradition dates back as early as four hundred eld ago. Children, therefore, could get lucky money from their parents, their aunts and uncles, and their grandparents. Koreans con rampr this a very important tradition because it shows their elders desire for the success of the members of their families. Therefore, this lucky money is a means of helping them start their late year in a prosperous manner.For the children, lucky money means new clothes, backpacks, pens and pencils because they want to return to tutor with brand new clothes and school supplies. Because of the importance of the New divisions Day celebration, Koreans, wherever they are, take for it a point to do their utmost in order to go back home to hold back this event unneurotic with their famil ies since most of them are now living elsewhere because of their jobs. Korean families of two hundred years ago usually lived in one big house where they could eternally have time to talk about their affairs and their problems.Nowa daytimes, the New course of studys Day celebration is the only occasion during which they could be together again and talk just like old times. The celebration very starts on the eve of the New social class called Sut dal kum mum in the Korean language. To prepare for the New Year, Koreans clean their houses thoroughly. After the house-cleaning, they light halogens of different colors. thus they take hot water cleanse and light sticks make of bamboo because they believe that doing so would drive the evil spirits away. Koreans do not sleep during New Years Eve.The belief is that when one goes to sleep, his or her eyebrows would turn white. Then the coming of the New Year is welcomed by reverse on all the lights in the all told house and keeping th eir look wide open (Society for the Confluence of Festivities in India). Then they take their bath early the following morning, New Years Day, and dress themselves up in new clothes. Afterwards, the bowing and giving of lucky money begins immediately. Meanwhile, the day is spent by Korean women in cooking delicious meals. nigh all Koreans cook the traditional rice-cake soup called Deok-Guk on New Years Day. According to them, this stands for purity because its color is white. The Korean saying is that if Deok-Guk is served on New Years Day, those who eat will have a longer life because the rice cake used in qualification the soup are long. Korean children love Deok-Guk because they believe that they will have faster and taller when they eat it during this day. Aside from Deok-Guk, Koreans also cook many salubrious recipes which contain plenty of meat and vegetables (SCFI).Koreans, in keeping with tradition, also celebrate the day by drinking a special kind of pot liquor which, according to them, improves their audition power. In other words, when they drink this liquor on New Years Day, they are convinced that their sense of hearing will be in excellent condition throughout the year. Their ancestors are also part of the celebration. In a ritual which they call Chesa, the ancestors are macrocosm energized so that they could bless their descendants. This ritual is being conducted in a clean room where there is an altar with foods on it according to a specified arrangement.First, the meat is placed on the left side of the altar and the rice drink is on the right side of the altar. Then all items colored white should be on the western side and the red-colored foods on the eastern side. In addition, if any food contains heads and tails, the head should be situate on the east while the tail should be positioned facing west. Finally, utilize a special paper which Koreans call Chi Bang, the name of the potent ancestors are then written clearly on the left s ide while the female ancestors name are written on the right, place in the order of their ages.For instance, the name calling of the great grandparents come first, followed by the names of the grandparents, then the names of the parents if they are al furbish up dead. This particular ritual, according to Koreans, is being observed in order to obtain the blessings of their descendants (SCFI). Koreans also believe that their ancestors are living in the sky and are always ready to protect them. Because of this belief, one of their traditions is a memorial service conducted for their ancestors. First, they prepare different kinds of food and then place them, together with the framed photographs of their ancestors, on a big table.Then every member of the family should bow in straw man of the photographs of their ancestors two times at the same time wishing for the security department of the whole family. After everybody is done with the bowing, the elders offer alcoholic drink to thei r ancestors. Then everybody is allowed to spend a quiet time in the room so that they can talk with their ancestors. Afterwards, everybody leaves the room and silence is maintained in the whole house to enable the ancestors to come down from the sky and eat the food prepared for them.Most Koreans observe this custom which is believed to be one super acid years old already. After the rituals have been observed, the family members, especially the children, find time to play. Most of the gimpys being played are outdoor plot of lands because they are considered good for the health, especially for children. Some of the more popular outdoor games for New Years Day are tops-spinning, kite flying, and the Korean game called Jae gi cha gi which is like the game where hacky sacks are kicked.Another traditional game which is very popular among Koreans because it could be played almost anywhere is called Yut-nol-ee. This game is usually played during the New Years Day and occasional until t he fifteenth day of January. Children are very fond of this game because it involves stick-throwing (SCFI). masses from different cultural backgrounds observe their traditional events every year not only to commemorate significant occasions but more importantly, to be able to hand down tradition from generation to generation for the purport of preserving their core cultural values.This is the most effective method of keeping their cultures alive. Koreans train to this school of thought. This is why efforts are being exerted to require the current generation and the generations to come to keep Korean traditions alive no matter what. It is all right for Koreans if people from different cultural backgrounds celebrate the New Year differently and sometimes even on different dates. What is important is for people across cultures to respect each others traditions and preserve the cultures of the world.

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Georgiana Cavendish background

During the 18th century, gender roles in England were resonated against gritty levels of chastity, compliance, delicacy as well as modesty that defined a truly virtuous female. It was believed that the greatest female achievement lay in total obedience and non in intellectual pursuits. This was mostly contributed by the nature and delineation of power that was largely vested in men during this finis and earlier on. However, this was very wrong as women could contribute positively to the social development. It was also wrong as it disregarded their integrity and underestimated their capacity to in effect participate to important decisions.Besides, they formed a key pillar in the development and growth of the children in the fraternity which demanded high level sapience and tidy wits. This book gives a clear outlay of the gender roles in England during the 18th century in the highly autocratic frameting system. With indication to Georgiana Cavendish there is a clear outlook of how the society started to defy the wide defined and accepted norms for the women in the society. This report gives the changing realities during this period and acted as a study pillar that would define later considerations of both genders in the society.A clear comparison of that moment and present day womens roles in the society is given with a view of outlining proper recommendations that should be used in determining the roles for both genders. Georgiana Cavendish background. Georgiana Cavendish was born of John Spencer in 1757 and married to the fifth Duke of Devonshire at the age of 17 years. However, lovers had started admiring her at an early age of 11 years but resisted from getting married by her parents. She was a famed beauty and an active political campaigner in the country (Brian, 11-17).To total to that, she liked gambling and was involved in sexual promiscuity later in her marital life. The fountain portrays her as a totally insubordinate icon that defied the odds of major societal expectations of the time. Societal expectations of Georgiana and other women in aristocratic England. Brian (12-16) indicates that women in England were less regarded and essential to take a piteous profile on major issues like political and family matters. Georgiana was therefore pass judgment to be obedient and submissive to her economise from the time of marriage throughout their lives.All the women in England were required to take care of their husbands and follow their demands in hurt of their physical and sexual desires. Therefore, they were pass judgment to remain in their homes to serve their husbands and children. universe the wife of a Duke, of great importance from her was to bear children for her husband and the monarch. The write insists that the wife specifically supposed to bear sons who would later be heirs of the monarch to continue the autocratic regime. With womens position and roles being at the home setting, they were not suppos ed to be involved in active politics of the country.During this period, womens suffrage was unheard of and it was required that they remained silent with their main contribution being to give the Duke an heir of the system. To add to that, the society expected them to remain crimp to their husbands at all times. This was powerfully emphasized for Georgiana as she was expected to set the pace for other women to emulate in their lives and depict the kings pride. Challenges by Georgiana to these conventions. As the book continues to unfold, it is clear that Georgiana challenged majority of these society demands strongly and with great courage.Though success was not immediate, the challenges acted as main center points in liberation of women in the entire England and other regions during the subsequent years. To begin with, the author puts it very clear that Georgiana was a strong political campaigner and was forever found in gatherings of political an literally figures. Prior to 1784 general elections she campaigned for the Whigs specially Charles James Fox. Major icons emerged later in the countrys leadership improving the employment of women in core decision making processes (Brian, 51-56).Most remarkable was Britain first gear up minister and the leader of conservative party Margaret Thatcher. Unlike the societal expectations, Georgiana neer brought happiness to the Duke of Devonshire. The marriage was an unhappy one with high levels of temperaments. Making it rase more sorrowful to the community in the society and the Duke himself, in their initial years she never bore any children as she was rocked by large miscarriages. Later, when she managed to give birth, she bore girls until the much awaited third born son. Besides, she introduced her husband to a mistress who was her friend leading to later marriage to her as a second wife.This was a major challenge as women were expected to strongly insulate the monarch from external genes that would interfer e with the overall integrity of the govern family. Openly defying major demands in the monarch and the society, Georgiana was promiscuous and had an affair with Charles gray-headed with whom she had a daughter. She was also reported to have traded kisses for votes during the 1784 general elections. To add to that, Georgiana was never home tied like other women as she went out to concern with other people of different classes.She was always involved in major places that women were prohibited from getting to. Being addicted to gabling, the book indicates that she died with major debts disrespect being from a very rich background. Mistresses and involvement of women in major activities that brought them out to meet with others later increased drastically in the self-colored country with open and hidden affairs characterizing majority of the young people and married couples. Conclusion. Women roles in England during late 18th century were highly authoritarian and segregative in th e aristocratically defined England.As indicated by the book, breaking these considerations was hard and required courage as well as major sacrifice. As depicted by Georgiana Duchess, women were strongly valued for their fertility that was largely used by their ruling husbands as a major source of pride repayable to guaranteed heredity and therefore increased ability to sustain the monarch in their lineages. Though her defiance was met with resistance, it formed a clear icon that attach later liberation for the women in their social-political and economic delineations in all dimensions.With the current women contribution in the society being of vital essence it is clear that this oppression was a deterrent to fast growth and development in the region during that period. Women roles should therefore be fully appreciated and their participation is match to those of men as they are equally capable of initiating and contributing to societal growth. Reference list. Brian, M. (1981). Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire Duchess of Devonshire. London Routledge.

Relationship Between Savings and Investment in the Nigerian Economy

Introduction Interests in the study of scotchal harvest-feast and development have been on the increase curiously since the middle of the cave in century. Economic growing results in the expansion of a countrys yield possibility curve such(prenominal) that the potential take of the country is increased beyond the previous levels. Thus growth is often delineate in terms of a sustained increase in the historical per capita income of a country.Simon Kuznets in (Todaro, 1885), defined a countrys frugal growth as a long term rise in the dexterity to supply increasingly diverse economic goods to its population, this growing capacity based on advanced technology and the institutional and ideological adjustments that it demands. evolution is in that locationfore measurable and objective. It pulls expansion in capital, in the labour force, in come onput, income, consumption e. t. c.It should be noted that economic growth is mosttimes utilize interchangeably with economic dev elopment. A distinction of the two was however make by (Jhingan, 1976) where he defined economic development as the non-quantifiable quantify of the growing economy i. e. the economic, cordial and other changes that lead to growth such as changes in techniques of production, social attitudes and institutions e. t. c. No matter the distinction what is strategic in the words of (Iyoha, 1996) is that there is no development without growth.One point that essential be mentioned however is that in practice, economic growth is used to describe the process of growth in advanced industrialized countries time economic development is used to describe the dynamics of growth in gloomy income non-industrialized countries. This locate is buttressed by (Romer, 2001), where he posited that over the past hardly a(prenominal) centuries, standard of living in industrialized countries has reached levels almost unimaginable to their ancestors.He confirm that although comparisons are difficult, t he best available evidence suggests that average real income right away in the United States and Western Europe are between 10 and 30 times larger than a century ago, and between 50 and 300 times larger than two centuries ago. Following from the above, Kuznets identified six-spot characteristics of modern economic growth. These are High rate of growth of per capita output and population. High rate of increase in total factor productivity, especi in ally labour. High rate of structural transformation of the economy. High rate of social and ideological transformation. Outward expansion of the developed economies i. e. the ability to reach out to the rest of the world for raw materials and markets. The international flow of men, goods and capita. It then follows that for all these to be achieved especially for a developing economy like Nigeria some economic variables within the context of the features of the Nigerian economy must be marked upon to achieve these status mentioned above.Statement of research problem So legion(predicate) blurred visions about the projection of Nigerian economy have been seen by the operators of the Nigerian economy. In the days of Abacha administration between 1993 and 1997, it was vision 2010 as led by former Head of State, Ernest Shonekan. 2010 is around the corner and nada seems to have changed the last 15years. Another journey is being embarked upon by Yaradua and his economic team. The mission of making Nigeria one of the biggest 20 economies in the world by 2020, vision 2020-20.Whether this is achievable or not is best left for fight for scholars of economics. But if one must follow the position of Robert Solow (1956), the Ramsey-Cass-Koopman model (1928, 1965, 1965) and the infield model (1965), achieving the above is a function of thorough understanding of production function of a given economy. Nigeria like most countries is blessed with teeming human and natural resources, yet the economy is still groping with p roblems.Evidence is palpable that apart from income from sales of crude oil, the nation is close to zero in terms of technological advancement. The reason for this is no other than that the much involve enthronisation to motivate technological advancement and industrialization is not forthcoming. The position of the government immediately after independence to embark upon import heterotaxy as an industrialization strategy did not equally help matter.If investment is a catalyst for industrialization and hence economic growth, investment is make possible by another catalyst in savings. Over the years, there has not been any synergy between savings and investment in Nigeria. This problem is because of little emphasis partakers in the running of the economy are giving financial intermediation. It is in a country like Nigeria where the borrowers run supreme at the expense of the lender.The deposit rates to the supplier of bills from the surplus building blocks are not only meager but pittance, magic spell the lending rates collected from the users of fund in the deficit unit is astronomical. So it is the issue of cutting the depositors with knifes edge spot cutting the borrower with razors edge. Savings is not encouraged while investment is discouraged. Economic activities slowed down, productivity neglected while economic growth in the real sense of it is stagnant.

Saturday, February 23, 2019

Nanotechnology Use in Fire Protection †Need for Environmental Friendliness Essay

at that place is a good take in to develop a much powerful glow protection technology as the morbidities and the mortalities from the contemporary seem to be rather insufficient. However, the na nonechnology elicit protection industry is still in the infancy stage, developing solutions that atomic yield 18 go forth of reach of the common man today. Nanotechnology is not scarcely found to increase the durability, strength and efficiency of the tangible, however similarly increase it waken opposite on with self-cleansing action. A great turn of events of ardor-retarders have nanotechnology moderated.A checklist needs to be prep ard that would be requisite by the end enjoymentr to ensure adequate protection of tender life and the environs. Nanotechnology put up as well as help in the detection and bar of frees. The technology seems to be promising with various practises. However, only if if the stakeholders experience more interested would this technol ogy become cheaper and permit more extensive map. entranceway Due to the serious impact of fire on the mortality, morbidity ( slues, etc) and the losings to property, there is an urgent need for fire protection considering the overcrowding in cities and the serious impact of fires on the surround.In the class 2003, about 70 jillion Euros were lost over fire deteriorations, and hence, people ar trying to get fire resistant buildings with both active and passive features (Innovations Report, 2004). Nanotechnology currently has a very small market part as more and more fire-retardant materials and electronics atomic number 18 being employ to tackle fire problems. In the Beijing Olympics concluded in the year 2008, fire protection was adequately provided in various sports construction sites by the use of Nanotechnology. There ar more than 48 different screenings in fire protection with nanotechnology. near of the common applications required in fire protection include scum bag detectors, alarm systems, resistant building material, etc, and nanotechnology has held strong promises in curbing any(prenominal) of the problems of the future (Innovations Report, 2004). In the year 2004, the nanotechnology market in the fire segment was 30 billion dollars, and is expected to almost double within a decade of entryway. As molecules toilet appropriately be modified to shambling them more fire-resistant, companies around the world are increasingly creating these modifications. Each year the nanotechnology market grows by about 25%.Nanotechnology is also said to be environmentally-friendly. China is said to be the current leader in the use of nanotechnology in fire protection (Innovations Report, 2004). The EPA is also supporting query in the use of nanotechnology for fire protection and safety. In February 2007, the EPA published a discolor paper on Nanotechnology and considered the equal to help in preventing defilement to the environment. The whiten pap er also focused on responsible use of nanotechnology by victimisation recycling of the same and also ensures that the same was not venomous to the populations (EPA, 2007).Using nanotechnology has some(prenominal) advantages in reducing pollution & ill-effects on the environment- 1. Reducing any waste substances that are released into the environment, 2. Using substances that are not so toxic, 3. Using conservative methods that could effectively keep down pollution and also recycling and reusing material, thus effectively preventing wastes 4. Increase in the general bug out area of the article 5. Improvement in the strength of the material without broad increase in the weight 6. Materials that use less raw materials and lesser electricity during manufacture7. Changes to the electrical conductivity, color and opaqucity of the materials 8. Products that are used become less self-cleansing can be used 9. there would be a reduced need to have chemicals that would retard flames an d fires 10. Components that are used in construction of automobiles can become more resistant to wear and tear, wearing away and fatigue 11. Nanoscale catalysts can effectively help to reduce pollution 12. using the nanoscale catalysts, raw materials would be utilized more economicly and reduced amounts of wastes would be generated (EPA, 2007)Advantages of Nanotechnology with reference to fire protection Body Nanotechnology involves the use small particles of materials or manipulating them in such a way that their properties would be enhanced, with potential application on a larger scale especially for construction purposes. Nanotechnology involves creating these modifications at ten to the power of -9 of a meter or the nanometer level. It is a new science with more recent applications and can be considered to be an extension of work that has been occurring on a microscopic level (micrometer).Processes and products with concrete, steel, glass, and composites are using nanotechnolo gy. The concrete that would be used can be manipulated easy and is more constant, stronger and environmentally-friendly. Steel and glass can become tougher. Once, these materials are stronger, durable, and tougher, and their utilisation is improve, the impact on the environment would also be positive as the materials are more efficient. Not only is the process of manufacture improved by using nanotechnology, still also during actual fabrication or manipulation at the construction site (Mann, 2006).Most of the nanotechnology applications have been held hold up due to the limitations in costs. Nanotechnology is quite expensive for the modern world to incorporate due to the infancy of technology. With costs of using the same very exalted and rather very limited applications, many people prefer ignoring nanotechnology, resulting in isolation. Researchers feel that within the next five years, there could be monumental use of nanotechnology in the field of constructions and others , such that application of the same would not be so unconscionable.Nanotechnology at the moment requires strong funding for research and motivation. The government needs to take an active role in the same with interest in improving the current environmental degradation. Besides, researchers and the industry need to collaborate more strongly. There should be a strong relish for innovation such that nanotechnology should be applied with greater force (Mann, 2006). With the introduction of any large-minded of new technology, importance should be given to the life-cycle of the products, toxicity of the product and exposure that could be occurring to both gentlemans and others in the environment.With congener to the life-cycle several factors need to be taken into consideration including design, level of production, application of the product, disposal, disintegration in the environment, etc. At the users end, a checklist need to be utilized that would ensure that enough of prevent ion is taking place in protecting the environment and human life. Some of the queries that can form a part of this checklist include- ? Steps need to be taken to reduce the unintended consequences of the life-cycle of the product ? Real-time application of the products that can prevent pollution? Barriers that are bring in for adopting nanotechnology in the modern world ? Methods of overcoming these barriers ? Areas of nanotechnology in which come on research needs to be performed ? Manner in which the beneficial properties of nanotechnology can be used to create innovative products that can reduce pollution ? Role the regulatory bodies, courts and the government can perform (EPA, 2007) Today, the walls of homes and offices have considerable amounts of lead in the paints and often this can be toxic during use or disposal.Nanotechnology and nanoengineering can help improve the composition of these materials such that they are less toxic to human health and the environment. Today, the impact of floods and erosion beaches are very critical considering the ill-effects of global warming. By changing the way inseparable materials function at the nanoscale, their environmental-friendliness can be improved (EPA, 2007). Not only would nanotechnology help in reducing the coulomb dioxide levels by changing how the material works at the nanoscale, but also help the way in which a building is using energy (EPA, 2007).The same modification to cement can effectively help in fire protection as spray-on coats. The present cements that are being used are very brickle and need polymers to make them more adhesive. With modifications at the nanoscale to cement, they are stronger, more durable and can tolerate naughty temperatures when present in coats. Effectively carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are mixed with cement material to mimic something similar to composites with high strength. Another option instead of using CNTs is polypropylene which is a cheaper option and can improve fire protection (Mann, 2006).Using nanotechnology, fall in solar cells can be manufactured that are more efficient and cheaper. Besides, nanotechnology can help in heat recovery and also in treatment of water and air at the building. However, these technologies are not current and scientists are suggesting that they can be used, although we have already woken up to the finish off of the future (EPA, 2007). The self-assembly of buildings can be improved using nanotechnology. Molecules can be designed into complementary shapes such that they produce only minimum energy, which effectively helps in fire prevetion (Mann, 2006).Nanotechnology also plays an important role in fire hazard management and prevention. Today having a nanocomposite as one of the materials present in the flame retardant has been considered an advantage. Cross linked systems that provide polyureas and polyurethane foams seem effective in controlling fires. Another new ray of light that has been developed to com bat flames is confocal microscopy (used in chemical analysis and material exam by collecting the light that is in focus and excluding light out of focus) (Leica, 2010).Previously, all the flame retardant systems had certain toxic components that could harm human life and have a disconfirming effect on the environment. However, elastic and rigid polyurethane structures have been used in a number of applications such as furniture, mattresses, carpets, cars, aircrafts, etc. By altering them at the nanoscale, their resistance to fire can be improved. Previously, the open cell structures of the foams prevented stability during fire fighting. Even additives that increase the foam stability would have a negative effect on the environment.These additives include halogens and phosphorus based compounds that have a negative effect over human health. As most of these substances are volatile, during fire fighting, the high temperature would cause evaporation of these materials causing more d amage to the environment (EPA, 2007). Nanotechnology can also be used to develop nano-electromechanical systems and circuitry that would ascribe detectors at various places in the buildings. The nano-devices would be effectively embedded into surfaces and would be able to detect fire easily (Mann, 2006).Another application of nanotechnology for fire protection is in nanoclays that can help to move the rate at which plastics burn as it can increase the char forming abilities and prevents plastics from melting and dripping. When used along with other flame retardants, there is more effective fire retardation (EPA, 2007). With regards to fire protection specifically certain queries need to be answered in the checklist- ? Extracting of raw materials during processing should not be damaging to the environment ? Emission of nanomaterial to the environment ? Reaction or additives to polymers? Nanomaterials properties during use ? Exposure of nanomaterials to the industrial workers during manufacture ? Reaction of nanomaterials to light, heat, dust, etc ? Ability to recycle the nanomaterials ? Protection of workers during manufacture ? Nanomaterials during blaze and burning ? Ability to transport the nanomaterial ? Effects of exposing the user to nanomaterial A caller by name GreenShield FR has developed a nanomaterial treatment for several groups of materials including polyester so that the material can become fire resistant as well as provide protection from water and staining.There are three sets of coat which are applied of the nanomaterial onto the surface. The first layer helps the nanomaterial to bind to the parent material. The second layer offers repellency and self-cleansing action, and the third layer offers fire-resistance. At the end, the holy material is non-flammable. When these materials degrade they do not release any kind of toxic material into the environment. Nanoclays on the other hand help to lower the amount of energy that is liberated dur ing fire. The nanoclays prevent the materials from bursting and disintegrating and further adding to the fire that has been activated.Nanoclays ensures that the materials burn slowly and at a lower temperature and can work along with several fire retardants (Betts, 2008). Conclusion Nanotechnology is offering strong promises to the field of fire protection, although very little is being utilized today due to the exorbitant costs of nanomaterials. However, these materials are not only more effective and safer, but also more environmentally-friendly. Within the next five years, with greater innovations and appreciation of nanotechnology it would be easier to use this technology.Using nanotechnology, materials not only become fire-resistant but also stronger, durable and better self-cleansing. Using nanotechnology, fire cannot only be prevented and retarded, but also monitored and detected using nano-electromechanical detectors. The future for nanotechnology looks good, but researcher s and academic organizations should continue with their search to make this technology more low-cost and effective. References Betts K. S. (2008). New Thinking on Flame Retardants. Environ health Perspect. 2008 may 116(5) A210A213. http//www. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/pmc/articles/PMC2367656/ EMBL (2010). Leica Manual, Retrieved on July 10, 2010, from Web site http//www. embl. de/ExternalInfo/almf/htdocs/almf_website/pdf/TCS_SP2_09052000. pdf EPA (2007). Pollution Prevention through Nanotechnology Conference, Retrieved on July 10, 2010, from Web site http//www. epa. gov/oppt/nano/p2docs/final_nano-conf-brochure. pdf Innovations Report (2004). Nanotechnology in Fire Protection can save Life and secure Health, Retrieved on July 10, 2010, from Web site http//www. innovations-report. com/ hypertext mark-up language/reports/studies/report-29292.html Mann, S. (2006). Nanotechnology and Construction, Retrieved on July 10, 2010, from Web site http//nanotech. law. asu. edu/Documents/2009/10/Nano tech%20and%20Construction%20Nanoforum%20report_259_9089. pdf Occupational Health & Safety (2010). Microtechnology vs. Nanotechnology, Retrieved on July 10, 2010, from Web site http//ohsonline. com/articles/2010/01/01/microtechnology-vs-nanotechnology. aspx PHYSORG (2010). Chemist monitors nanotechnologys environmental impact, Retrieved on July 10, 2010, from Web site http//www. physorg. com/news188736302. html