Saturday, December 28, 2019
The media, interest groups, and political standard is a fascinating marriage in our mechanically exceptional social order. It is better comprehended when differentiated into their singular commitment to our social order to positively feel their effect on our day by day lives. Broad communications is characterized as a method for correspondence that achieves a huge volume of individuals in a short measure of time (broad communications). Interest groups could be better seen as an aggregation that is resolved to forestall or help change open arrangement without the need of being chosen (Twyman Whitney, 2009). Furthermore, popular conclusion is characterized as the whole of all unique convictions in a given populace. By understanding what these parts of the current political ideal model should speak to we can better see how this marriage has been tainted and the electorate is, no doubt deceived. The first motivation behind the media was to educate the general population of any news on an authentic, fair-minded, and truthful way and we managed the press in which constitutionally ensured flexibility of the press. Benefit spurs this new development of the press. Ads in all manifestations of media, is the primary wellspring of income for that organization and this drive revenue driven can structure inclinations so as to expand benefit by promotions that are equipped to the crowd, which as a general rule is the end customer of the paying sponsors (Petrova,Show MoreRelatedAmerica Is Known For Its Freedom Of Speech1682 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAmerica is known for its freedom of speech. The dynamics of the American political system gives the American people a voice in what goes on in the government. The right to vote gives all citizens the opportunity to vote on various positions in the government and local areas. Political parties perform a number of functions for the American pol itical system. The functions and components of political parties, interest group activity, electoral politics, public opinion, political participationRead MoreU.S. Government Essay1155 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages1. Describe how the U.S. Constitution was formed. Use historical dates and references in your answer. The Constitution was completed and adopted in Philadelphia on September 17, 1987. One of its main functions was to ensure the thirteen states became worked as one rather than following separate laws. Before the Constitution there was a weaker government that encompassed many problems and holes that needed ratification. This lead to a convention in order to create a stronger central governmentRead More The Influence of the Media on Politics Essays4124 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesThe Influence of the Media on Politics Freedom of the press is guaranteed only to those who own one. This quote by A.J. Liebling illustrates the reality of where the media stands in todays society. Over the past twenty years there has been an increase in power throughout the media with regard to politics. The medias original purpose was to inform the public of the relevant events that occurred around the world. The job of the media is to search out the truth and relay that news to the peopleRead MoreEssay about Media Bias and Concentration3948 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesMedia Bias and Concentration After witnessing a hotly contested election and the massive amounts of campaigning done by both parties in effort to inform the public and reach as many voters as possible, one question still remains poignant: Where do we get our information? The myriad landscape that is the media today, can be accessed from almost anywhere, and has, in many ways, entrenched itself in American culture, replacing what used to be standard outlets of information. Television and printRead MoreRupert MurdochÃ ¬Ã ¥S Media Monopoly5481 Words Ã |Ã 22 PagesThe paper explores how dangerous such an important mass media as TV can be, if too many power is concentrated in just a few hands, and how our perception of reality can be manipulated by the selection and manipulation of information presented on TV. Table of Contents Introduction Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦..Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦ p. 3 1. The development of television Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦.. p. 4 2. Globalisation of the TV market and its effects Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦. p. 5 3. How legislation can influence the quality of journalism Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦Ãâ¦.. pRead More Public Opinion and Television Essay5264 Words Ã |Ã 22 PagesPublic Opinion and Television The paper explores how dangerous such an important mass media as TV can be, if too many power is concentrated in just a few hands, and how our perception of reality can be manipulated by the selection and manipulation of information presented on TV. Introduction The following term paper deals with the development of television from its early beginnings in the 1920s up to now. My attention focuses on the powers which influence what is shown on TV and theRead MoreSocial Power of the News Media12127 Words Ã |Ã 49 Pages1 Power and the News Media Teun A. van Dijk University of Amsterdam __________________ INTRODUCTION In the study of mass communication, there has been a continuous debate about the more or less powerful effects of the media on the public.1 Instead of reviewing these positions and their empirical claims, this chapter examines in more general terms some properties of the social power of the news media. This power is not restricted to the influence of the media on their audiences, but also involvesRead MoreLeadership Corruption Of The United States2298 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pagesand open in political life of American. The political field of the United States is just as a big stage, on which those young talent and who are in authority, show off as an old saying expressed, Ã¢â¬Å"You just finished and I come on the sceneÃ¢â¬ . However, there are doubts that people can hardly receive any hearing of news about a real corruption in American, for the statesman do not corrupt in any unacceptable ways. In recent years, many corruptive cases show frequent occurrence in America. It w as onlyRead MoreEssay about Mass Media Sociology4896 Words Ã |Ã 20 PagesThe mass media has become a big part of our society and its counterparts. In a time span of 50 years this medium has influenced society to an extent where it has created wonders. This immaculate tool can control almost every action we perform, from speaking to the actions that every human being performs in society. The mass media has brought upon a new era of ideas and changes in the world we live in. As we analysis media in depth we will find many aspects of media which overlap and some of theRead MoreThe Medias Role in Regional and International Relations with Regards to Development, Transition, and Influence3313 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesand Influence I study Journalism, so I felt that I had an opportunity to solidify the medias role in all facets of regional and international relations, with regards to development, transition, and influence (regional as well as global). I first chose examine Daniel Lerners development continuum, and this as a reference point, to discuss the role mass media plays in global transition and development, in particular how it is suited to aide in the socio-political development
Friday, December 20, 2019
The University of Miami knew a fully smoke-free campus would be a challenge, so the university tried to combat this challenge with three different phases to ease the campus community into a fully smoke-free area. Over the past four years, the Be Smoke Free Campaign has promoted a healthy environment for the students, staff, faculty, and visitors of the University of Miami. Phase one prohibited smoking with the exception of designated smoking areas around campus in September of 2011. Phase two in August 2012 simply cut the amount of designated smoking areas in half. The final phase, enacted in August of 2013, prohibited smoking on campus completely, so why are smokers seen consistently breaking the rules? Smoking on college campuses has been a prominent issue for over ten years. About Ã¢â¬Å"32.9 percent of 18 to 22-year-old, full-time college students had smoked in the previous 30 days in 2001Ã¢â¬ (Leppel). Since the percentage of college students smoking is high, it is not unli kely that the University of Miami has an issue with this problem. Although the University of MiamiÃ¢â¬â¢s smoke-free policy was enacted in 2013, it will not be a success until there are concrete disciniplary actions and a full commitment from the whole Ã¢â¬ËCane Community. Smokers can be seen on campus everyday, especially surrounding the Richter Library, one of the most common places for people to smoke. Smoke-free signs cover the campus to remind students and faculty of the policy, but they go unnoticed. TheShow MoreRelatedEfforts to Reduce Smoking Among College Students Essay1272 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSmoking has been reduced over the past two decades, but Ã¢â¬Å"cigarette smoking among college students is of concern because the smoking prevalence among college students did not decrease as it did among the general population,Ã¢â¬ (Harrar et al. 121). This statement shows the significance of efforts to reduce smoking among college students. I believe college campuses woul d benefit from a Ã¢â¬Å"no-smoking policyÃ¢â¬ . This policy would serve to eliminate the harmful effects of smoking and second-hand smoke onRead MoreSmoking On College Campuses Should Be Banned1675 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSmoking, as one knows it, has become a stress-reliever worldwide. One will find a smoker pulling out a cigarette and lighting it up around every corner. Smoking has especially become a growing problem in college campuses. When a college student enters the college campus, they do not only enter a new campus, a new life is also entered. In this new experience, one will find themselves exploring new things. The power of the eye is remarkable in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society. When someone has a friend that is doingRead MoreShould Public Smoking Be A Smoke Free Campus?825 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesquestion because it addresses topics about how campuses are continuing to eliminate smokers on campus, one way they eliminate it is by enforcing policies, however, if the polies are not followed there is a fined. In addition, it talks about why campuses are going smoke free, so this will be a great source to refer to when I address why I believe George Mason University should be a smoke free campus. Mostly importantly, the question if secondhand smoking is much of a problem is addressed. Many believeRead MoreNo Smoking Bans In Colleges Essay1078 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesNo Smoking Bans at College Smoking bans have become a new trend in colleges and universities. The effort is to making changes in the attitude and behavior of students to consider this habit as risky for a smoker, as well as the people around them and other environmental factors. Knowing the fact a growing concern is observed as harmful effects of second hand smoking are larger than that of first hand smoking. A smoke free campus policy will be a mere step in changing the trend of smoking and maintainingRead MoreIs Smoking A Bad Phenomenon?1306 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSmoking is a bad phenomenon has widely spread especially on campus between college students. Despite all doctors and scientist are confirmed health dangers, economic dangers and social dangers for smoking there is a huge numbers of college students smokers. The purpose of this paper is to provide a literature review concerning policy implementation in reference to campuses that are smoke-free. In spite of the general success in present decades of curbing the rate of smoking in various countries,Read MoreSmoking on College Campuses1260 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe days of smoking on college campuses is coming to an end! (Daneman) The Department of Health and Human Services made an announcement, backed by the White house, to act on getting colleges everywhere to enforce a tobacco free campus! (Daneman) Smoking is a choice made among st an individual and falls within the first amendment in the constitution along with eight more! So how can we legally ban smoking from a whole college campus? In the end, the individual is going to do what he/she pleases ifRead MoreThe Impact of Smoking Bans875 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Impact of Smoking Bans Few issues over the use of public and commercial space ignite more impassioned disagreement than that over indoor smoking bans. With evidence of the dangers of second-hand smoking having achieved a state of being incontrovertible, lawmakers, lobby groups and public health advocacy groups have taken steps to diminish the exposure to second-hand smoke experienced by individuals on the whole. While the benefits of a smoking ban in bars, restaurants, clubs and other suchRead MoreUnited States Should Adapt Tobacco Free Policies On Their University School Grounds Essay2507 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesDid you know, smoking causes more thanÃ¢â¬ 440,000 deathsÃ¢â¬ per year? (Ã¢â¬Å"Effects of TobaccoÃ¢â¬ 1). That is an overwhelming number of deaths that could be prevented if only the individuals did not use tobacco. As of 2008, East Tennessee State University has adopted a tobacco-free policy for not only the safety of students, but their overall mental and physical health as well. That policy has been increasing on college campuses at a nationwide level. As of 2009, the American College Health Association adoptedRead MoreShould Marijuana Be Legalized?1329 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe college campuses in the United States have the majority of the population that uses drugs among society (Wadley Carlier, 2014). The ages of these students range from Ã¢â¬Å"18 to 24Ã¢â¬ that are the most likely candidates to use marijuana and are more susceptible to use and find themselves addicted while they are in college (College Drug Abuse, 2015). There is conflict on college campuses between the state and federal government laws because the college is ran by the state by falls under federal lawsRead MoreCauses Of Smoking Essay1288 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesRisk: Smoking A major public health issue among young adults is cigarette smoking. Many people know the relationship between lung cancer and smoking, but there are countless other health risks linked to smoking. Smoking can increase your risk for cancer of the bladder, throat and mouth, kidneys, cervix and pancreas. Smoking not only affects the smoker but the people around them. About 54% of American children are exposed to secondhand smoke (Ã¢â¬Å"Smoking: Do you really know the risks?Ã¢â¬Å"). Nonsmokers
Thursday, December 12, 2019
Question: There are several changes from DSM IV to DSM 5 manuals in diagnostic criteria and grouping. Critically evaluate three of these major changes. Answer: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is an authoritative guide published by American Psychological Association (APA) used by health care professionals guiding the diagnosis for mental disorders containing symptoms, descriptions and criteria. Many editions of DSM are being modified, reviewed and enlarged when first DSM I was introduced by APA in 1952. New categories of diagnosis were introduced with distinct hierarchy in well-known practice recommending single pathology identification explaining clinical status symptoms (Birgegrd, Norring and Clinton 2012). Gradually, the concept of DSM III was abolished and the concept of co-morbidity was introduced confirming DSM IV during 1990s. In 2013, a new version was introduced by APA providing an official list of mental disorders. It guides treatment for mental disorders being the largest change reflecting scientific understanding of the mental issues and its treatment. A lot of modifications took place from DSM IV to D SM V having implications on the understanding and treatment of mental disorders. The modifications took place in seven aspects; autism spectrum, bipolar disorder, ADHD diagnosis, PTSD symptoms, dementia reclassification, intellectual disability and artificial categorization modification (Regier, Kuhl and Kupfer 2013). The following discussion involves the critical evaluation of three major changes from DSM IV to V in terms of bipolar disorder, autism spectrum and dementia reclassification. The main change occurred in DSM V is that the terminology of general medical condition is modified to another medical condition relevant for disorders. DSM IV failed to reflect upon the shared symptoms or features of diagnostic groups like bipolar disorders with psychotic disorders, internalizing (depressive, anxiety, somatic) or externalizing disorders (conduct, substance abuse, impulse control) (Cosgrove and Krimsky 2012). On a contrary, DSM V restructured interrelationships, across and within diagnostic chapters. The strength of earlier DSM classification was to diagnose baseline psychiatric diagnosis on the defined and operational criteron that resulted in inter-rater reliability. This was the greatest weakness in DSM IV where patients were formally diagnosed under which only half of the patients were actually treated. There was lack of operational categorization of subthreshold diagnoses in DSM IV whereas in DSM V, there is high recognition where large number of patients is seek ing treatment who were formally under Not Otherwise Specified (NOS) group (Kupfer, Kuhl and Regier 2013). Elimination of bipolar disorder is a major modification from DSM IV to V. DSM IV contains diagnosis of mixed episode, bipolar I disease requires that the person meet the full criteria simultaneously for major depressive episode and mania that is removed in DSM V. There is enhancement in the accuracy for diagnosis and its facilitation at early stage detection in the clinical settings. The criterion A now contains hypomanic and manic episodes including an emphasis on the energy and activity changes and mood in DSM V. This change from IV to V removed the restriction and helpful in diagnosing patients from DSM IV subdiagnostic bipolar syndromes (Grunze et al. 2017). In the new version, a specific terminology mixed features is added applying to episodes of hypomania and mania and previous criteria is removed. In this, depressive features and its episodes in the context of bipolar or depressive disorder are added when hypomania/mania features are present. DSM V also allows the accurate specification of particular conditions that is related to bipolar disorder that includes categorization of individuals with past history of major depressive disorders meeting the criteria for hypomaniac condition except duration criterion of consecutive four days (Swann et al. 2013). The second condition that comprises other specified bipolar related disorder having fewer symptoms of hypomania meeting criteria for full bipolar II syndrome however, duration for four days is sufficient. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder in DSM IV has few shortcomings; large proportion of patients who were treated for the bipolar disorders had to be allocated to NOS and vague groups. However, with the introduction of DSM V, bipolar disorders are identified with a new specifier of mixed features applied to hypomania or mania episodes where depressive features are exist. In DSM V, there is also elimination of childhood bipolar disorder as in DSM IV; there was a harmful over-diagnosis and treatment of this condition. However, in DSM V, there was removal of this condition replaced with Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD), where all children who were formally diagnosed with bipolar disorder will fall under the category DMDD (Etain et al. 2013). This new category does provide a new way to diagnose this condition more accurately matching set of symptoms characterized by extreme tempered outbursts. Many threshold groups have been added to bipolar disorders, depression and mixed sta tes that are operational in DSM V. The mania and hypomania episodes encountered during treatment of depression under certain conditions are also added under bipolar disorders. DSM V main lines the definition of major depressive disorders basic to DSM IV. Hypomanic and manic episodes are radically revised in this new version impacting on bipolar disorders. Three main changes are being witnessed in DSM V regarding gate questions of hypomania and mania (criterion A), reduction in exclusion criteria and vigorous effort for the operationalization of subthreshold syndromes in bipolar disorder that were earlier diagnosed as NOS (Uher et al. 2014). The mood change that is accompanied by persistent increase energy or activity levels is also included in DSM V. However, this new version is quite strict and restrictive excluding the people who report only one out of three bipolar symptoms and also irritable and elated mood. Apparently, individuals who had been diagnosed with bipolar I or II disorders or manic episodes in DSM IV are now being classified as subthreshold bipolar group under DSM V. On a contrary, the new strict DSM V rule is not data based and there is in deed contradiction of available evidence. According to Angst (2013) patients receiving treatment for major depressive disorders demonstrated one of the three gate questions clearly and with validity. In addition, Exclusion criteria are one justified and amplified change in DSM V concerning bipolar II disorder diagnosis. DSM IV major change in depression into hypomania was exclusion criteria principle. However, in DSM V, it explained that this condition persists at full level syndrome that is beyond physiological effect of the treatment being explicit bipolar II disorder criterion. DSM V is like DSM IVV allowing scope for clinical judgment to causality. There is also a new formal criterion for medication or substance-induced bipolar related disorder. According to Angst et al. (2012) DSM V will be able to diagnose bipolar II disorder twice as often as bipolar I having a prevalence approach. Bipolar II will be more frequently diagnosed in logical and justified manner explaining a milder condition more prevalent than severe mani a. According to Phillips and Kupfer (2013) during the long-term illness, bipolar patients experience milder conditions like minor depression rather than major syndromes. However, despite of the advancement made in the new version, bipolar disorder is still under-recognized in DSM V. The epidemiological studies and its re-analyses demonstrated that major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heterogeneous group with% hidden cases. It requires systematic screening for hypomania in individuals with previous history showing little appreciable impact on hidden bipolarity detection (Koukopoulos and Sani 2014). Concisely, even after DSM V introduction, vast majority of major depressive episodes (MDE) continued to be diagnosed under MDD. The second modification in DSM IV is autism spectrum diagnostics classification. In DSM IV, pervasive development disorders were also considered under autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). This includes Aspergers disorder, autistic disorders and pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). However, with the introduction of DSM V released in 2013, significant modifications have been done in the ASDs categorization. The main reasons for change includes; there was difficulty in applying criteria for PDD subtypes schematically, children diagnosed with AS met the criteria for AD being similar and for controlling the exponential rise in cases (McPartland, Reichow and Volkmar 2012). In DSM V, the four separately classified issues that are very common being unified under ASDs header. The previous categories of DSM IV are no longer in use and separate levels are replaced under one umbrella of ASDs. The severity levels of ASDs are based on support needed for the patients in terms of challenges faced with repetitive behaviours, social communication and restricted interests. The revision suggests that older version was not precise and various clinicians diagnose patients with different disorders and also some changes diagnosis because of same symptoms differing year to year. In the new version, autism is defined by common set of behaviour characterized by single terminology according to severity levels 1, 2 and 3. The removal of PDD-NOS and Aspergers disorder is the significant change in DSM V and patients who are currently diagnosed with these conditions will be re-diagnosed and evaluated (Grzadzinski, Huerta and Lord 2013). However, this may create confusion among parents of children who are diagnosed with these conditions, adults and children who are strongly identified with these diagnoses. The new ASDs classification is stricter, thorough as compared to old criteria. In DSM V, more symptoms are required to meet the new criteria within arena of fixated interests or repetitive behaviours. There is also reorganization made in DSM V as DSM IV currently holding domains for ASDs includes impairments in communication, social interaction, restricted interests and repetitive behaviours. In DSM V, social interaction, communication domains have been merged into one entitled, Communication/Social Deficits (Frazier et al. 2012). This is a remarkable change where language development delay is no more necessary for the diagnosis. Although, the modifications are made with a hope to make ASDs diagnosis more reliable, specific and valid, however, there are legitimate concerns raised regarding the impact of people on the spectrum of autism. The biggest concern is that the higher functioning patients will no longer be able to meet the guidelines of strict diagnostic criteria and therefore , will face difficulties in accessing the relevant services. The main question is what will happen to the patients who are currently diagnosed with PDD-NOS or Aspergers disorder (Kim et al. 2014). There is also growing uncertainty that how the educational and state services, insurance companies will adopt to these modifications. In DSM V, to fulfil ASD criteria, symptoms must be present during childhood manifesting social demands exceeding capacities having a marked effect on the functional ability and level of severity specified. Apart from removal of separate Aspergers and autism categories to ADSs, there is also removal of criteria including; cognitive and language delay, lack of imaginative or varied play. The levels are also well specified under DSM V. Level 3 comprises of categorization requiring highly substantial support measuring severe deficits in non-verbal and verbal communication, very limited response and initiation as compared to others. Level 2 requires substantial support having marked deficits in communication, abnormal response and limited initiation speaking few words. Lastly, level 1 category requires support having deficits in social communication, unsuccessful overtures and deficits in response and initiation (Mahjouri and Lord 2012). The new diagnosis for autism in DSM V is purely based on behaviours and no differentiation of Asperger syndrome, PDD-NOS and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder. There is no definition for aetiology within ASD with simplified approach and fewer ways for a person to meet criterion in two domains. The social communication domain also recognizes the social function of communication being some of the advantages of DSM V ASD (Lai et al. 2013). It is evident that ASD changes will be going to affect people and families currently diagnosed with ASD and pose challenge to clinicians on how they are going to use this new criterion for the evaluation of children and its impact on availability of resources. Reclassification of dementia is another modification from DSM IV to V. In the new version, dementia and learning or memory difficulties categories called amnestic disorders are subsumed into a new category of major neuro-cognitive disorder (NCD) (Tay et al. 2015). This new criteria splits the disorder into broad severities of major and minor for encouraging early detection, treatment of the issues. The terminology, dementia in etiological subtypes is not precluded from application where this term is standard. In DSM V, cognitive impairment at less severe level, a new disorder permitting diagnosis of less disabling syndromes, mild NCD, nonetheless might be the focus of treatment and concern. The diagnostic criteria in DSM IV comprises of memory impairment (category A1) and fulfilling of one or more symptoms like apraxia, aphasia, agnosia and executive functioning disturbance (category A2). Category B- the cognitive deficits in A2, A1 causing significant impairment in occupational or s ocial functioning representing significant decline in functioning level. Category C defines that cognitive deficits does not occur exclusively during course of delirium (Sachdev et al. 2014). DSM V criteria (previously dementia) is now NCD providing evidence for cognitive decline from decreased performance level in one or more domains of cognitive functioning like language, memory and learning, complex attention, executive function, social cognition and perceptual-motor being category A with no sub classification (Strydom et al. 2013). Category B defining cognitive deficits interfering with independence and assistance required for activities of daily living (ADL) classified under NCD. Category C defines that cognitive deficits is not exclusive in delirium and a new category D is introduced defining that cognitive deficits not explained by other mental disorders like schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. The new version focuses on the decline from level of functioning rather than cognitive deficits and term NCD removed the stigmatization that people have about older term dementia. There is potential fallout in this change as healthcare professionals have to spend considerable amount of time in understanding and transitioning to new system learning the differences between minor and major NCDs and explanation of significance and differences to the patients and family members. This new system can confuse older individuals about dementia as they consider it as Alzheimer failing to comprehend between the two conditions. Another challenge is lack of recognition regarding the minor condition as patients may not be serious about the progression to major condition (Carpenter and Tandon 2013). Using DSM V, clinician will diagnose major or minor condition due to Alzheimer and MCI will be diagnosed as mild NCD due to Alzheimer leaving the end result confusing for the clinician, patient and family members. The concept needs to be explained to the population with correct guidance for eliminating the confusion. From the above discussion, it can be concluded that DSM V is a strict, advanced and restrictive form than DSM IV. DSM IV is a statistical and diagnostic manual adopted by APA in correlation with ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders by World Health Organization (WHO). DSM IV was used as an axial system grouping disorders into broad categories like personality disorders, mental retardation, and all psychological categories except personality disorder and mental retardation. In contrast, DSM V provides better classification of dementia, autism and bipolar disorder. Aspergers disorder and pervasive disorder are put under category of ASD, bipolar disorder falling under DMDD and reclassification of dementia. In this, amnestic disorders are subsumed into new category NCD splitting into broad categories. DSM V has controversial issues like Aspergers disorder removal and inclusion within Autism much to dismay of current patients with this disorder. However, DSM V is a rig ht step towards acknowledging new terms and mixed groups in bipolar disorder. In addition, it created confusion among the clinicians and require consideration in learning and explaining the new version to the patients. It causes potential fallout for the patients who are currently being diagnosed or treated for the conditions that are being removed or merged. Therefore, DSM V provide significant changes from DSM IV providing tightened up definitions, adding rating levels of severity and elimination or grouping of specific disorders. The diagnostic criteria are clarified and provide changes for the clinicians outlining more valid diagnoses. References Angst, J. (2013) Bipolar disorders in DSM-5: strengths, problems and perspectives.International journal of bipolar disorders,1(1), 12 Angst, J., Gamma, A., Bowden, C.L., Azorin, J.M., Perugi, G., Vieta, E. and Young, A.H. (2012) Diagnostic criteria for bipolarity based on an international sample of 5,635 patients with DSM-IV major depressive episodes.European archives of psychiatry and clinical neuroscience262(1), 3-11 Birgegrd, A., Norring, C. and Clinton, D. (2012) DSM?IV versus DSM?5: Implementation of proposed DSM?5 criteria in a large naturalistic database.International Journal of Eating Disorders,45(3), 353-361 Carpenter, W.T. and Tandon, R. (2013) Psychotic disorders in DSM-5: summary of changes.Asian journal of psychiatry,6(3), 266-268 Cosgrove, L. and Krimsky, S. (2012) A comparison of DSM-IV and DSM-5 panel members' financial associations with industry: a pernicious problem persists.PLoS Medicine,9(3), e1001190 Etain, B., Aas, M., Andreassen, O.A., Lorentzen, S., Dieset, I., Gard, S., Kahn, J.P., Bellivier, F., Leboyer, M., Melle, I. and Henry, C. (2013) Childhood trauma is associated with severe clinical characteristics of bipolar disorders.The Journal of clinical psychiatry,74(10), 991-998 Frazier, T.W., Youngstrom, E.A., Speer, L., Embacher, R., Law, P., Constantino, J., Findling, R.L., Hardan, A.Y. and Eng, C. (2012) Validation of proposed DSM-5 criteria for autism spectrum disorder.Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry,51(1), 28-40 Grunze, H., Vieta, E., Goodwin, G.M., Bowden, C., Licht, R.W., Azorin, J.M., Yatham, L., Mosolov, S., Mller, H.J., Kasper, S. and Members of the WFSBP Task Force on Bipolar Affective Disorders Working on this topic (2017) The World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) Guidelines for the Biological Treatment of Bipolar Disorders: Acute and long-term treatment of mixed states in bipolar disorder.The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 1-57 Grzadzinski, R., Huerta, M. and Lord, C. (2013) DSM-5 and autism spectrum disorders (ASDs): an opportunity for identifying ASD subtypes.Molecular autism,4(1), 12 Kim, Y.S., Fombonne, E., Koh, Y.J., Kim, S.J., Cheon, K.A. and Leventhal, B.L. (2014) A comparison of DSM-IV pervasive developmental disorder and DSM-5 autism spectrum disorder prevalence in an epidemiologic sample.Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry,53(5), 500-508 Koukopoulos, A. and Sani, G. (2014) DSM?5 criteria for depression with mixed features: a farewell to mixed depression.Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica,129(1), 4-16 Kupfer, D.J., Kuhl, E.A. and Regier, D.A. (2013) DSM-5The future arrived.Jama,309(16), 1691-1692. Lai, M.C., Lombardo, M.V., Chakrabarti, B. and Baron-Cohen, S. (2013) Subgrouping the Autism Spectrum": Reflections on DSM-5.PLoS biology,11(4), e1001544 Mahjouri, S. and Lord, C.E. (2012) What the DSM-5 portends for research, diagnosis, and treatment of autism spectrum disorders.Current psychiatry reports,14(6), 739-747 McPartland, J.C., Reichow, B. and Volkmar, F.R. (2012) Sensitivity and specificity of proposed DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder.Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry,51(4), 368-383 Phillips, M.L. and Kupfer, D.J. (2013) Bipolar disorder diagnosis: challenges and future directions. The Lancet,381(9878), 1663-1671 Regier, D.A., Kuhl, E.A. and Kupfer, D.J. (2013) The DSM?5: Classification and criteria changes.World Psychiatry,12(2), 92-98 Sachdev, P.S., Blacker, D., Blazer, D.G., Ganguli, M., Jeste, D.V., Paulsen, J.S. and Petersen, R.C. (2014) Classifying neurocognitive disorders: the DSM-5 approach.Nature Reviews Neurology,10(11), 634-642 Strydom, A., Chan, T., Fenton, C., Jamieson-Craig, R., Livingston, G. and Hassiotis, A. (2013) Validity of criteria for dementia in older people with intellectual disability.The American journal of geriatric psychiatry,21(3), 279-288 Swann, A.C., Lafer, B., Perugi, G., Frye, M.A., Bauer, M., Bahk, W.M., Scott, J., Ha, K. and Suppes, T. (2013) Bipolar mixed states: an international society for bipolar disorders task force report of symptom structure, course of illness, and diagnosis.American Journal of Psychiatry,170(1), 31-42. Tay, L., Lim, W.S., Chan, M., Ali, N., Mahanum, S., Chew, P., Lim, J. and Chong, M.S. (2015) New DSM-V neurocognitive disorders criteria and their impact on diagnostic classifications of mild cognitive impairment and dementia in a memory clinic setting.The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry,23(8), 768-779 Uher, R., Payne, J.L., Pavlova, B. and Perlis, R.H. (2014) Major depressive disorder in dsm?5: implications for clinical practice and research of changes from DSM?IV. Depression and anxiety,31(6), 459-471
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
The Perks of being a wallflower The coming of age theme In The Perks of being a Wallflower Is that he Is overcoming his first love. It explores In the mind of Charlie all his emotion and drama. Dealing with all the things that happen in Charlies life. He had to grow up and learn to let go of the things that had happened in the past. Charlie is new and he wasnt used to having attention from people at school, hes a aloofer, meaning he just sits and watches from the sidelines, doesnt Join in on anything.He is coping with his friends suicide causing him anxiety and fear, he has to grow up and move on from what has happened in the past, but thats what Charlie finds difficult, he cant seem to move on and let go of his old life. Charlie had to try and forget about his Aunt molesting him. We will write a custom essay sample on Coming of Age- Perks of Being a Wallflower or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page As he grows up, things bring up flashbacks, causing him to be hospitalized. This Is caused when Sam touched his leg, he freaks UT. As he grows up being a teenager things are easily triggered.Charlie goes crazy Inside his head because nobody knows about what happened, he cant move on unless he tells someone about what happened. Thats what Is going to set him free to live his life. He has no idea how to deal with it, so he has to grow up and speak up, which is outside of his comfort zone. He thinks about suicide but he knows its not the way out. He really had to grow up to get over everything that had happened. He goes through traumatic events as a child which result in his unique personality. Appreciate those around you, but do more then make them happy. Be honest with them and let them appreciate you for you, completely and truthfully. Its okay to be a wallflower, but only as long as you participate often enough to let people notice that you are there reading the book it helped you understand Charlies realization of self doubt, you watched as Charlie grew. He finally knew It was okay to be different.
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Spiders Spiders This report deals with testing the toxicity of certain chemicals on spiders, and determining the toxicity by how it affects it's ability to weave it's web. This report contains research on the four chemicals (benzedrine, chloral hydrate, caffeine, and alcohol) as wellas the spiders and their webs. Spiders are of course found in the class Arachnidia, which also contain mites, scorpions, and other arthropods. The order which spiders are classified under is called Araneae, a word of Latin origin. Most spiders are land dwelling, but some can be aquatic. Those that are aquatic spend most of their lives in or around water. Spiders can live in a vast amount of different places around the world. Jumping spiders have been collected on Mt. Everest at a height of 22,000 feet, the highest elevation at which any animal has been collected (Orkin, Insect Zoo 1). Adult species vary greatly in size, which is a contributing factor in the prey they choose, and also the way they catch this prey. Spiders range from less than three hundredths of an inch to more than 10 inches. All spiders are carnivorous in their eating habits, insects being first on their menu. Spiders usually catch live animals because the movement of the prey attracts its attention. Some spiders have poor vision, and rather depend on the movement of it's web to locate an insect. (Orkin, Insect Zoo 2). The prey is usually wrapped in silk before the spider injects the venom to kill it. Yet the larger the spiders, the larger its prey. Some spiders have been known to kill vertebrate animals, such as fishing spiders, who thrive on small fish, or bird spiders, feeding on small birds from South America, as well as a variety of lizards. Some species have even been known to attack snakes. When food is scarce, mainly during winter months, spiders have no trouble have no trouble with food, most can go months without eating. A spider's structure is irregular when compared to other animals, yet similar to those of other arachnids. An arachnid is of course classified on the number of it's legs, which happens to be eight. Spiders have two main body regions: the cephalothorax and the abdomen . The cephalothorax consists of the head and the thorax, which are fused together. Insects have three main body regions, a head, thorax, and abdomen. Other arachnids have those two regions connected through a broad waist. All spiders also have simple eyes, lacking compound eyes only found in insects. Spiders can have many pairs of eyes however, this number often reaches four. Spiders do not have an antenna either. (Orkin, Insect Zoo 6) Many spiders secrete a fluid in their posterior abdomens which is later extruded as a silk. This fibrous protein is used to weave webs, snares, shelters, and/or egg sacs. A spider uses fingerlike spinnerets to disperse this silk. Most spin more than one kind of silk to customize its web, or to just fit its purpose. For example, the spider makes some parts of its web not sticky so that it can run across it and not get caught. Another source says that spiders first lay down a type of silk known as ?dry thread?, with which they weave a ?dry spiral. Once this is completed, the spider lays down a sticky spiral of thread and goes on to eat the dry one. The sticky spiral must be replaced every couple days because it loses its ?stickiness.? Some scientists suggest that the pattern of an orb web (most common type of web used by spiders) is designed to attracted insects. These webs are thought to produce patterns that resemble those reflected by numerous flowers in UV light. Since insects only see in UV light, they might as well fly into a trap (Lyons, Spider Silk 1). Spider silk has been recognized for centuries as a high quality fiber. A few pairs of stockings and gloves have been made from the silk as early as the 16th century. Various attempts have been made to produce it commercially, yet have failed. New efforts are currently under construction as more people are finding new ways to use a strong, elastic fiber. A few of these
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Dictatorship essays In modern times, no dictator can take total power by force alone. In order to gain support, they must offer something beneficial to the people. Unfortunately what is thought to be beneficial can be extremely harmful and cruel. Three specific dictators during the World War II period were Mussolini, Hitler, and Stalin. Joseph Stalin was the successor of Lenin after his death. He had only one goal and that was to finish what Lenin had started. Basically that was to build a classless society in which the means of production were in the hands of the people. After Stalin established power, he developed new goals to make the Soviet Union a leader in industry. He wanted to get rid of Russias backwardness. For this reason Stalin proposed several five year plans. These plans were aimed at improving industry and economic growth. He developed a command economy, which meant government made all economic decisions. Under Stalin, the government controlled all businesses. Stalin also took agriculture under control of the government. He forced people to give up their privately owned land and live on government-owned farms or on large farms that were owned and operated by groups, also known as collectives. The state set all prices and controlled access to farm supplies. (Comptons Encyclopedia, 1990, Joseph Sta lin S570) On July 29, 1921, Adolf Hitler was introduced as Fuehrer of the Nazi Party. Fuehrer basically meant leader. By November 1923, the Nazis held approximately 55,000 followers and were the biggest and most powerful in Germany. The Nazi Party demanded action of Hitler. Hitler knew that he would lose his support if he didnt do something fast. So he and his party developed a plan to kidnap the leaders of the Bavarian government and force to accept Hitler as their leader. On November 9th, 1923 Hitler and his Nazis went to Munich and tried to take it over. At this point they were not powerful enough to ...
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Gender equality, Islamic Law and the Modern Muslim state - Essay Example The issue of gender equality in Islam was not a central notion nor was it addressed until the 20th century by Muslim jurists. The status of Men and Women in Islam is continuously explained by the Muslim scholars in the light of teachings of Islam and Holy Quran. The Islamic laws negated the modern authoritative position attributed to men in modern states and gave equal rights to the women. Although Islam has given equal rights to women, the misinterpretation of its laws and principles has exposed the religion as a typecast. Islam permits women to hold any office outside her home as long as that post is not derogatory to the feminine nature. The only condition which Islam presses on the women is that their working outside their homes should not be a source of embarrassment for them and their families and must not harm their reputation as a woman and a human being. It also impresses on the women to strike a balance between their jobs outside their homes and their duties as a mother or a wife. The teachings of Islam also do not forbid Muslim women to interact with the opposite gender in public as per the requirement of their jobs . However, the gender gap index of the world in 2009 shows that most Muslim countries have performed below the global average and are not showing any signs of improvements in the previous years. Saudi Arabia, Morocco, Algeria and Bahrain however, remain an exception to this. Yemen was rated at the bottom of the 134 nations graded for gender score index in 2009 . Additionally, it has been reported continuously that most of the Muslim women are denied basic human rights, ranging from permission of a guardian for marriage to abeyance of husband in all fields of life. Most of the people also blame Islam for the frequent incidents of Muslim men torturing women and providing them with below par living standards. According to experts on the subject, the true identity of Islam prevailed for a very brief period after its inception. Initially the Umayyads played havoc with the principles of Islam and then the Abbasids inflicted much of the damage to the concept of the religion. It did not end he re and the monarchs who ruled Iran continued to distort the religion by forcing their women to submit to the will of men. Another factor responsible for inequality of gender in Islam is colonialism. From 20th century onwards, colonialism has had a profound effect on the internal and external structure of the society. Through this concept, the already established norms and traditions were completely destroyed and novel foreign norms were imposed. It also exaggerated the existing gender divisions and labor roles of the two genders. Resultantly, the Islamic society completely collapsed with an environment of complete confusion. Men tried to find solace in rigid cultural customs e.g. forcing their women to cover themselves with veils and making them invisible in the eyes of the society. So much so that the princesses of once Mughul Empire were forced to indulge in prostitution. However, experts believe that understanding the complete scenario is essential before criticizing the principl es of another religion. The religious experts of Islam believe that Quran has given spiritual and moral equality to both men and women. This is clear from many verses in Quran clearly which spell out that men and women in Islam are in fact each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s protectors and complement each other. There is a strong bond of respect between the two genders and
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Learning Theory and Simulation Applications for Aviation Training - Essay Example The use of simulation training in the preparation of military and civilian pilots cannot be ignored and this is mainly used because training based on actual equipment in the real world can be prohibitively expensive and dangerous. "In fact, the military and the commercial aviation industry are probably the biggest investors in simulation-based training. These simulations range in cost, fidelity, and functionality. Many simulation systems have the ability to mimic detailed terrain, equipment failures, motion, vibration, and visual cues about a situation." (Salas and Cannon-Bowers, 2001, p 471). In the training of military and civilian pilots, three essential learning theories such as behaviorism, cognitivism and constructivism are employed. One of the major concepts which guide the design of flight training simulators today is that "transfer of training is highest when similarity of the training and transfer situations is the highest . . . this is the governing principle for most simu lators that are built." ( Adams, 1979). Therefore, simulation training can be comprehended as one of the most effective and practical methods of aviation training which corresponds to the utility of learning theories in the training of civil and military training. Simulation training reflects the most advantageous outcomes
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Business - Essay Example The environment, as a result, is influenced in a negative way. On the other hand, globalization has a positive impact on poverty reduction and wealth generation of the nations, thus proving them with a wider range of opportunities for sustainable development. Introduction Globalization, as a process of unification of global markets, has been much discussed in the recent years. There exist different opinions on the issue Ã¢â¬â some view globalization as a positive thing, while others Ã¢â¬â as a negative. However, a general common opinion is that globalization is one of the principal vehicles for economic growth and wealth generation. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to research and analyze the role of globalization in the modern world as that of the driver of economic growth and wealth generation. In addition, the relationship between globalization and sustainable development will be assessed and analyzed in order to determine compatibility of the two concepts. The analysis will be based on current examples in areas such as poverty alleviation and environmental protection. ... le development and how the two principles can be used on practice with the goal of achieving a sustainable competitive advantage in the global marketplace. In order to achieve the set goals the meaning of both concepts Ã¢â¬â globalization and sustainable development Ã¢â¬â should be defined in the first place. Definitions Knight (2000, 12) defines globalization as a Ã¢â¬Å"growing interdependence of national economies - involving consumers, producers, suppliers, and governments in different countries.Ã¢â¬ As a result, boundaries between foreign and domestic markets are loosing their significance and businesses have more freedom to operate in foreign countries. Among the results of the process of globalization is, as Dunning (1993, 43) outlines, intensification of competition. As an economic term, globalization refers to the increasing integration of global economy caused by Ã¢â¬Å"incessant flows of goods and services, capital, technology and information across national borde rsÃ¢â¬ (Lucas 2004, 1). At the same time, globalization stimulates international communication and intercultural exchange. So, in a broad sense globalization can be called a continuous process of internationalization that increases interdependence of world countries in such aspects as economy, politics and culture, among others. As for sustainable development, it can be defined as a systemÃ¢â¬â¢s desire or tendency to continuously improve and achieve certain social objectives, such as social wealth and health, improved education, increased volume of resources or increased number of social freedoms (Pearce, Barbier, and Markandya 1990, 2). Though such an improvement within the system does not have any time limits, the term implies that the changes taking place always lead to improvement and benefits the system
Friday, November 15, 2019
Smoking as a Public Health Issue INTRODUCTION Smoking is an extremely crucial public health issue which is considered to be an immediate and serious threat to many developing countries across the globe (WHO 2005). Being one of the most significant determinants of increased rate of mortality and ill-health throughout the world, smoking is still a preventable epidemic (OTC 2005). Active cigarette smoking has long been known to predispose common people to several types of mouth diseases, lung cancer, atherosclerotic vascular diseases, impotence etc. and enhanced exposure to environmental tobacco smoke has deleterious effects to public health (Ong and Glantz 2004). Cigarette is utilised as an apparatus for self-administering nicotine which significantly causes drug dependency. It has been observed that nicotine inhalation via cigarette smoking is far more swift technique of drug intake as compared to heroin injections because nicotine takes not more than 7 seconds to travel from lungs into brain whereas, it takes 14 seconds for the heroin to reach the brain (DiFranza, Savageau and Fletcher et al 2007). Smoking prevalence as a global epidemic necessitates serious attention as about 1.3 billion people across the globe have been reported to smoke cigarettes and thereby experience numerous smoking-related health issues (Webb, Bain and Pirozzo 2005). In accordance with a study it has been estimated that by 2025-2030 approximately 10 million people are anticipated to die because of widespread smoking habitude (Edwards 2004). There are numerous ramifications of smoking in almost every area of knowledge including politics, economics, psychiatry, psychology, sociology, anthropology, pharmacology and pathology. This all-inclusive nature of the subject encompassing the bio-psychosocial segments of life makes it an appealing exploratory premise for the study. 1.1 Overview of the Report The report is designed to highlight the key epidemiological evidences pertaining to cigarette smoking, based on the global mortality rates and several stages of the worldwide tobacco epidemics. Moreover, the epidemiology of smoking habitude amongst general population of UK has been represented on the basis of age, gender and socio-economic factors. The central part of the report discusses a number of smoking related risk factors to public health and also evaluates the responsiveness of public towards the identified risks. Later segment of the report proposes the practical interventions to address the global epidemic of smoking which subsequently leads to conclude the overall study. 1.3 Rationale of the Study The main objective of this report is to accentuate smoking as a major public health issue and highlight the related health risks to general society based on the epidemiological evidences. By expounding on the public behaviour towards smoking and its damaging effects to the general populace, the study attempts to appraise the subject area. The report also aims to evaluate the effectiveness of current public health services pertaining to smoking cessation by probing in the interventions designed to reduce the underlying risks and improve public health. CIGARETTE SMOKING: EPIDEMIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE The epidemiological evidences suggest that the consistently augmenting patterns of smoking lead to enhance worldwide mortality rates and the recent studies suggest that the developing countries have slightly higher smoking induced mortality rate especially in men, as compared to the developed countries (Table: 01). Table: 01 Estimates of Smoking Induced Global Mortality Rates Millions of Death from Smoking (Uncertainty Range) Men Women Developed Countries 2.43 (2.13 2.78) 75% 25% Developing Countries 2.41 (1.80 3.15) 84% 16% Total 4.83 (3.94 5.93) 80% 215 Source: Ezzati and Lopez 2000 In western countries smoking prevalence has been estimated to be 30% which is considerably less as compared to Asian countries where smoking prevalence is evidently incremental as for example 53% in Japan, 63% in China and 73% in Vietnam (European Commission 2007). There has been significant variation in EU pertaining to smoking trends as for instance 18% in Sweden to 42% in Greece however; the average smoking prevalence in EU was about 32% (European Commission 2007).Ã The segmentation of worldwide tobacco epidemic in four different stages has been exhibited below in Figure: 01, Figure: 01 STAGES OF THE WORLDWIDE TOBACCO EPIDEMIC Source: http://www.info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/types/lung/smoking/#cancer Smoking trends in Great Britain indicate that the overall gender-specific adult smoking rates have been declined by approximately 0.4% per annum since the year 2000 (Robinson and Bugler 2008) however, the most recent statistics reveal that smoking prevalence during 2007-2008 in UK has remained more or less the same. Gender-specific cigarette smoking trends in UK during 2004-2008 are exhibited below in Table: 02, TABLE: 02 CIGARETTE SMOKING BY SEX (2004-2008), UK PERCENTAGE (%) 2004 2005 2006 2007 2007 Men 26 25 23 22 22 Women 23 23 21 20 21 All 25 24 22 21 22 Source: General Lifestyle Survey 2008 The age-specific smoking prevalence trends observed in UK indicate that the age group of women between 20-24 years i.e. approximately 31% of young women in UK are indulged in smoking behaviour and similarly, men aged between 25-34 i.e. approximately 30% of men are also found to be regular smokers (Friis and Sellers 2009). Age-specific cigarette smoking trends in UK during 1978-2008 are exhibited below in Table: 03, TABLE: 03 CIGARETTE SMOKING BY AGE (1978-2008), UK AGE % 16-19 20-24 25-34 35-49 50-59 60+ 1978 34% 44% 45% 45% 45% 30% 1988 26% 37% 36% 36% 33% 23% 1998 31% 40% 35% 31% 28% 16% 2008 22% 30% 27% 24% 22% 13% Source: General Lifestyle Survey 2008 Representing the link between cigarette smoking and socio-economic sector of the UK society, it has been observed in a survey that smoking is much more prevalent amongst people associated with routine and manual occupations which includes approximately 30% of men and 27% of women whereas, people associated with managerial and professional occupations exhibit a slightly reduced smoking trend which includes 14% of men and 14% of women following smoking behaviour (Robinson and Bugler 2008). Socio-economic classification of cigarette smoking trends in UK during 2008 are exhibited below in Table: 04, TABLE: 04 SMOKING IN UK: SOCIO-ECONOMIC CLASSIFICATION PERSONS AGED 16 AND OVER, GREAT BRITAIN: 2008 (%) Men Women Large employers and higher managerial 14 11 Higher professional 12 12 Lower managerial and professional 16 16 Intermediate 21 22 Small employers / own account 22 21 Lower supervisory and technical 26 24 Semi-routine 31 28 Routine 33 30 Source: General Lifestyle Survey 2008 SMOKING INDUCED RISK FACTORS TO PUBLIC HEALTH Smoking patterns are greatly influenced by the individuals bio-psychosocial status and considerably vary depending upon diverse factors including fiscal condition, population size, age, gender, and the existence of regulatory models. It has been studied that social pressures play an integral role in an individuals conformation towards a specific set of beliefs or behaviour and smoking too, like other forms of substance dependencies is shaped up in accordance with the surrounding environment of a smoker (Killoran et al 2006). Gender-specific smoking induced risk factors considerably fluctuate depending upon the societal, cultural and religious beliefs as for example 40% of young women in Spain have been reported to indulge in active smoking behaviour on the other hand, China remains less affected when it comes to smoking habitude in women which has been reported to be less than 5% only (European Commission 2007). Similar is the case with other Asian countries including India, Pakistan , Bangladesh etc. where smoking induced risks to women are significantly less as compared to men because of conservative culture and traditions in the region. Moreover, the statistics also exhibit that the smoking induced risk factors are less common in older age groups, in both men and women as the lowest ratio of smoking has been observed amongst people aged 60 and over (Merrill 2010) because younger generation is much more enthusiastic to experiment and usually exhibits callous attitude towards health risks. There has been a sustained and analogous pattern of smoking induced risks observed between both the manual and non-manual populace of the socio-economic sector in UK, which signifies the growing awareness of public towards the underlying public health issue. Apart from bio-psychosocial risk factors there are a number of other smoking related risks to public health which are summarised as follows: 3.1 Passive Smoking Second hand smoking, environmental smoking or passive smoking are all detrimental and risk the life of a non-smoker that is consciously or unconsciously exposed to hazardous effects of smoking induced chemical compounds and probable human carcinogens. Passive smoking has been identified as the most critical cause of smoking related ill-health and incremental mortalities in general population, due to lung cancers and coronary heart diseases. 3.2 Tobacco Carcinogenesis Excessive tobacco consumption in the form of cigarette, cigar, pipe smoking enhances the risk to mouth, larynx, and oesophagus cancers and if complimented by heavy alcohol intake, can subsequently trigger the tumours in tobacco carcinogenesis (DoH 2007). 3.3 Occupational Hazards Persistent interaction between smoking and a variety of industrial agents can develop a number of cancers as suggested by numerous experimental and epidemiologic data. It has been studied that the smokers working within the environment containing asbestos or uranium ores significantly provides the means to stimulate tobacco carcinogens and an increased risk of lung cancer (DoH 2007). 3.4 Coronary Heart Diseases Several studies suggest that cigarette smoking significantly contributes in premature sudden death from coronary diseases especially in populations where arteriosclerosis is prevalent thus, exerting a pronounced secondary effect to hyperlipidemia and hypercholesteremia subsequently increasing the risk of hypertension and heart attack (Ong and Glantz 2004). Air Pollution Studies suggest that excessive air pollution complimented by cigarette smoking, leads to death from acute pulmonary disease and lung cancer. The carcinogens contained in pollutant air is inhaled in relatively small doses and on the other hand, cigarette smoke is highly concentrated and inhaled directly into the lungs therefore, the damaged caused to the respiratory tract by the air pollution alone, is comparatively less than the damage caused by the intense tobacco smoke. However, for non-smokers the passive smoking in combination with the pollutant air can be a serious risk to health as heavily polluted air contains approximately 100,000 particles per cubic centimetre whereas inhaled cigarette smoke contains more than 5 billion particles per cubic centimetre (Webb, Bain and Pirozzo 2005). ANALYSING PUBLIC RESPONSIVENESS TO THE IDENTIFIED RISKS Despite of consistent efforts by the local governments and numerous international health organisations, it has been observed that the public awareness programs regarding smoking cessation are considered to be effective to varying degrees; as it is extremely difficult to determine the consumers perception towards the smoking related health consequences and addictive nature (Bauld et al 2003). The consumer base in the developing countries remain exceedingly unacquainted with the country-specific smoking related information and health policies as the preventive interventions like awareness campaigns, registration system to assess disease patterns and the identification of smoking related trends are not vigilantly established. Moreover, the consumer base in the developing countries expect low-cost and reliable preventive measures however, the fiscal limitations makes it difficult for the local governments to entrench inexpensive and equally effective smoking awareness schemes and interve ntions; as a result of which the public responsiveness towards addressing the smoking epidemic is significantly pitiful especially where it looms largest. In addition to this, smoking cessation becomes a complex issue due to its addictive attribute and several studies have rated it as amongst the most evil drug dependency as compared to heroin and cocaine (Donaldson and Donaldson 2003). The addictive trait of cigarette smoking is characterised by a cluster of behavioural, cognitive and physiological phenomena which consequently develops due to enhanced substance use resulting in increased desire for smoking which becomes a persistent exercise and as the time passes, the chances of withdrawal becomes unattainable. It has also been studied that the superfluous social acceptance of smoking has significantly contributed to its sweeping popularity and prevalence amongst the general population (Marmott and Wilkinson 2006) and this ignorant public attitude combined with lack of awareness; results in natural inclination of the masses to consider it a harmless and a nontoxic habitude (Stevens, Raftery, Mant and Simpson 2004). From the economic perspective, the tobacco industry generates humungous revenues by influencing the developing countries as a profitable target for market expansion, which is mutually advantageous to the developing countries leading them to compromise on their public health issues against enhanced fiscal benefits. Tobacco industry considerably influences the political set-up of several countries to advertise and promote cigarette smoking and their intriguing commercial campaigning significantly draw the attention of younger generation that are already less-informed and easily fall prey to such marketing tactics. Pre-targeted and smartly designed commercials significantly mislead the naive public and successfully manoeuvre them by relentless denial of tobaccos unfavourable health impacts. PRACTICAL INTERVENTIONS FOR SMOKING EPIDEMIC The smoking related health outcomes can be substantially controlled by integrating effective tobacco control policies and interventions that are capable to cease or significantly reduce its prevalence and consumption amongst the general population. It has been studied that tobacco smoking does not limit the effects of its pervasiveness to smoker itself rather the people present in the surrounding environment (Farmer and Lawrenson 2004) as for example, non-smoking adults including cohabiting partners and children of the smoker are also adversely affected. Hence, it becomes essential to edify the smokers to acknowledge their social responsibility towards the general public and strongly discourage them to exhibit their smoking habitude in public (Douglas et al 2007). The success rate of the practical interventions adopted in the developed countries has found to be much practicable as compared to the developing countries because the regulatory frameworks are stringent and the law enforce ment agencies are also equally efficient. In order to enable the general population to effectively combat with smoking-related public health issues, it is imperative to establish prudently designed and effectually devised practical interventions; for discouraging cigarette smokers and providing maximum protection to children, pregnant women, elders and other non-smoking adults by entrenching a number of the below mentioned tobacco controlling key initiatives: 5.1 Establish a Highly Informative Setting A highly informative environment can be established by effectively conveying the most updated and evidence-based tobacco related public health information to the general population and specifically highlighting all the associated risk factors. The local governments must exhibit maximum commitment towards smoking cessation campaigns by formulating effective regulatory framework and providing suitable means to the healthcare professionals to implement it (Scott and Mazhindu 2005). Highly developed countries and the international health organisations must also facilitate the poor countries by financing the research projects to evaluate causes, consequences and costs of tobacco use in the respective regions and thereby, devise a preventive strategy accordingly. 5.2 Media Campaigning Media is the most constructive tool to speedily communicate with the masses therefore, it is imperative to utilise both print and electronic media for positive campaigning and specifically rope-in the e-media to target todays internet savvy, younger generation. In the wide-ranging interest of public health, it is the social responsibility of media world to completely prohibit the enticing cigarette advertisements and instead make noble use of the media by broadcasting regular public service messages to discourage the prevailing smoking behaviours. 5.3 Stringent Policies to Reduce Tobacco Consumption Substantial increase in tobacco prices can significantly reduce its consumption especially amongst younger generation or those that are unable to afford. Governments must also concentrate on formulating such policies that can completely forbid the promotional campaigns and considerably restrict the sales through vending machines (DoH 2007). Since smoking is one of the most prevailing global epidemics therefore; strict rules and regulations shall be imposed to discourage smoking in public places as for example bus stops, restaurants, educational institutions, offices, hospitals and cinemas etc. This would not only limit its consumption but will also signify the governments seriousness towards addressing the underlying public health issues. Moreover, the tobacco industry shall be consistently introduced to consistent and rigorous tax networks so that the target of promoting controlled use of cigarette smoking can be achieved (DoH 2007). On the other hand, governments can attain dual be nefits by expanding the tax network for the tobacco industry thus reducing its consumption amongst general populace and can generate more taxed revenue. 5.4 Discouraging Nicotine Dependency Regular smokers become heavily reliant upon nicotine intake and therefore, seek for certain other alternatives as a substitute to cigarettes including chewable tobacco, tablets, patches and inhalers, if their accessibility to cigarette smoking has been disrupted. The governments while designing smoking related preventive strategies must acknowledge that nicotine is highly addictive and therefore, it is wise to introduce less-harmful and inexpensive alternatives to regular cigarettes and subsequently educate them to overcome their nicotine dependency by adopting practical interventions through professional medical assistance (Prabhat, Chaloupka, Corrao and Binu 2006). Moreover, the developed countries and international health organisations can also donates such inexpensive nicotine alternatives to poor and deprived countries in order to promote smoking cessation and healthy living across the globe. 5.5 Support Groups Nicotine dependency significantly damages the internal health of people which restricts them to participate in healthy sports activities. Governments can help the local bodies to establish tobacco control support groups in their respective neighbourhoods and to organise healthy activities and events to promote constructive attitude amongst general population. A strategically designed tobacco control program also facilitates in mobilising the civil society to effectively contribute both their money and time to engage nicotine dependent people in healthy activities (Prabhat, Chaloupka, Corrao and Binu 2006) and thereby, motivating them to overcome their cigarette smoking habitude. Formation of such support groups provide easy and consistent access of tobacco-specific valuable information to the smokers and also enhance their awareness to the associated risk factors. CONCLUSION Smoking has been established as a consistently prevailing global epidemic and that is so, because the related effects of smoking are not restricted to the smoker himself, but also extend to others through a range of risk factors including passive smoking and air pollution etc. which makes it a substantial risk to public health. Provided the fact, it is not only essential to discourage smoking behaviour in smokers but also educate the non-smokers to protect themselves from the associated health risks. Apart from individual preventive measures, there is a growing need for integrating practical interventions to ensure reduced exposure to tobacco smoke especially in public places by providing separate smoking and non-smoking areas or installing ventilation or completely banning smoking through industry led voluntary agreements or by introducing stringent statutory requirements. To conclude, cigarette smoking is radically injurious to public health and honest efforts are required at both individual and communal level to enhance public awareness towards the associated risks and particularly support the smokers to quit their smoking habit. Smoking as a Public Health Issue Smoking as a Public Health Issue It is now a matter of common public acceptance that smoking causes ill health. This statement can be backed up by huge amounts of authoritative literature (Dobson et al 1999) (Smoking Kills 1998) (Choosing Health 2001) The subject of this essay however, is whether or not it is a Public Health issue. We will argue strongly that it is and produce evidence to support this stance. The Wanless Report (2002 ) defines Public Health as Ã¢â¬Å"The science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through organised efforts and informed choices of society, organisations Ã¢â¬â public and private, communities and individualsÃ¢â¬ On that basis we would suggest that the argument is already made since there is little doubt that smoking Ã¢â¬â both active and passive Ã¢â¬â will shorten life and cause disease. The evidence to support this statement comes from papers such as that by Prescott ( et al. 1998) who carried out a huge study looking into the effects of primary smoking and the risk of myocardial ischaemia in the general population. The results of the study were absolutely unequivocal with a finding of an increased risk of myocardial infarction in women of 2.24 and in men of 1.43. the reasons for the sex difference are several including genetic factors (Bennett 2004) and hormonal factors (Chapman 1999) To take a step further back, we have to define Health An authoritative definition of Health comes from the WHO who currently tell us that health is Ã¢â¬Å"a state of complete physical, mental and social well being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. ( WHO 1992). A difficulty with this definition is that today many people confuse the attainment of happiness with the attainment of health (Kemm 2001). Ironically, in the context of this essay, Freud also offered us an observation on the definition of Health when he observed that most people equated well-being with happiness rather than health (Freud 1975) and he amplified this by observing that he had been advised by his doctors to give up cigars in order to improve his health. He commented that he was far more healthy but much less happy (Saracci 1997). Although FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s comment was clearly flippant, it does exemplify a deeper truth, that part of the problem with smoking is the pleasure that some people derive from it. One can always advance the argument that in a free society one should always have freedom of choice to damage yourself if you wish. (Hegel 1971) That is clearly the case, but in adopting that view you must also accept two further consequences of that position. One is that society is expected to pick up the bill when you are ill (via the NHS) and that by smoking, you may not only damage yourself but you may well damage others through the medium of passive smoking. (Kuhse Singer 2001) It is these latter points which actually make the issue one of Public Health. The Public (in general terms) are expected to fund the necessary treatment when you become ill. This is not an isolated incident as over 200,000 patients are diagnosed annually with some form of smoking related malignancy and over 120,000 will die from the disease. This is quite independent of those that develop other complications of smoke-related illness. (NHS Cancer Plan 2000). If you add to this number, the carers and the other economic costs to the community, the argument that it is not a Public Health issue clearly fails. We have raised the issue of passive smoking as one of the criteria for suggesting that smoking is an issue of public health. The evidence for this is rapidly accumulating. We can point to the cleverly designed study by He (et al.2004) whichÃ was able to point to the statistical differences in illness rates between those industrial workers who had a constantly smoky atmosphere to breathe and those who were able to avoid it. There is little doubt that choosing to smoke where others will inhale the smoke is a demonstrably anti social behaviour. As if to underline our view, we can point to the fact that the Government takes a similar view as it has produced a series of Government White Papers (Choosing Health 2004) (Building on the Best 2003) and regulations (Saving lives 1999) which are all aimed at improving the health of the nation by reducing its collective exposure to cigarette smoke References Bennett Gottleib 2004 Passive smoking more risky for women with a missing gene. BMJ: 2004 Vol 26 320-322 Building on the best 2003 Department of Health: HMSO. 09/12/2003 Chapman S 1999 Smoking and Women: beauty before age? BMJ, Mar 1999; 318: 818. Choosing Health 2004 Government White Paper consultation on improving peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s health 28.6.04 BMJ, Dec 2004; 319: 1522. Dobson et al, 1999; National Centre for Social Research, RCP, 1999; Freud S. 1975 Letter to Lou Andreas-Salome, 1930 May 8. Cited in: Sigmund Freud house catalogue. Vienna: LÃ ¶cker and WÃ ¶genstein, 1975: 49. He, T H Lam, L S Li, L S Li, R Y Du, G L Jia, J Y Huang, and J S Zheng2004 Passive smoking at work as a risk factor for coronary heart disease in Chinese women who have never smoked BMJ, Feb 2004; 308: 380 384. Hegel GW. 1971 Philosophy of Mind: Being Part Three of the Encyclopaedia of the Philosophical Sciences (1830). Wallace W, trans. Oxford: Clarendon Press; 1971. Kemm 2001 The pursuit of happiness Cancer Nurs. 2000;23(1):20Ã¢â¬â31 Kuhse Singer 2001 A companion to bioethics ISBN: 063123019X Pub Date 05 July 2001 NHS Cancer plan 2000 A plan for investment, a plan for reform Department of Health. HMSO. 27/09/2000 Prescott, Merit Hippie, Peter Schooner, Hans Ole Hein, and JÃ ¸rgen Vestbo 1998 Smoking and risk of myocardial infarction in women and men: longitudinal population study BMJ, Apr 1998; 316: 1043 Ã¢â¬â 1047 Saracci R 1997 The world health organisation needs to reconsider its definition of health BMJ, May 1997; 314: 1409. Smoking Kills1998 A White Paper HMSO: December 1998 Wanless report: HMSO 2002 World Health Organisation. 1996 Ethics and health, and quality in health careÃ¢â¬âreport by the director general. Geneva: WHO, 1996. (Document No. EB 97/16.) PDG 20.8.05 Word count 1,192
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
Philosophy of Education My philosophy of education would include a classroom that supports creativity and gives students an opportunity to explore the world in the confines of four walls. Knowledge results from countless experiences and interactions throughout an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s lifetime. I believe the purpose of education is to allow students to discover who they are through exploring who has come before them, and what is possible for them in the future. Formal education should provide students with more than a foundation in basic disciplines. It should develop skills that will facilitate living and working in an ever-changing world; one filled with diversity. As a teacher, I would hope to illustrate to my students how vital each and every one of them is to the world as a whole. My classroom would be bright and colorful. Examples of studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ work would be displayed. The environment will be student centered. The desks would be arranged in a circle for class discussions, and be moved into separate stations for cooperative work. Computers would be stationed around the classroom and used frequently. Discovery based learning would be a major factor considered in the design of my classroom. Students will have the choice of using various resources and materials to suit their preferred style of learning. Some of us are listeners, readers, or just may simply need to get our hands dirty. An effective classroom teacher would be able to cater to all of these academic...
Sunday, November 10, 2019
During the Vietnam War, American soldiers and officials used illegal drugs such as marijuana, heroin and opium to release stress from war and to kill the pain of an injury. The uses of narcotics were not strictly monitored and were sold at low prices increasing the amount of usage. The use of illicit drugs may have also resulted in some sexual assaults that led to children with mixed nationalities. Before the Americans came into Vietnam, drug laws were not well determined and people did not use dope as much. However, soon after the Vietnam War started, most soldiers and citizens dramatically started using narcotics, mostly marijuana. Marijuana was available all over the country and this type of drug was a convenient crop to produce although it was an illegal act. Marijuana usage in Vietnam was far more widespread than it was in the United States and was cheap since it does not have to be imported from a foreign country. However, the South Vietnamese Government tried to tighten its policies so that it will be harder to obtain. In about 1970, the North and South Vietnam militaries pressured the soldiers to reduce the use of marijuana. This led to soldiers smuggling narcotics and wanting a refined kind of drug that could not be noticed easily. When heroin was first introduced, people hid it in their cigarettes and consumed by smoking. This highly addictive drug became very popular in Vietnam and was consumed a lot. Statistics and army records show that about 50% of the soldiers and officials had used either heroin or opium during the war.
Friday, November 8, 2019
7th Grade Science Fair Projects Seventh grade and middle school, in general, are a big time for science fairs because its a wonderful educational level for students to come up with ideas to explore using the scientific method and ways to investigate their questions. Parents and teachers still provide direction, especially helping students devise manageable experiments and appropriate work technology to present their results. However, the actual experiment should be done by the 7th grader. The student should record data and analyze it to determine whether or not the hypothesis is supported. Here are some ideas appropriate for the 7th-grade level. 7th Grade Science Project Ideas and Questions Use a prism to show the spectrum of visible light on a sheet of paper. Mark the endpoints, which is how far into infrared and ultraviolet you can see. Compare your visual range with that of other family members or other students. Is there a difference in range between genders? Do family members have a similar range? See if you can draw any conclusions Ã¢â¬â¹using the scientific method.Composting is a great way to reduce waste and recycle nutrients, yet some household products and foods are contaminated with heavy metals and organic chemicals. Devise a test to measure one of these chemicals and compare the concentration in compost versus that in the ordinary soil in your yard.Houseplants can absorb and detoxify indoor pollution. Do research to identify which houseplants are best at cleaning the air in a home, office, or classroom. Now, take the project to the next level and determine which plants are most practical, affordable, and useful. Make a chart of the chemicals the plants cl ean, whether the plants are toxic to children and pets, whether they can live in low-light conditions or require bright light or special care, how much the plants costs, and whether they are readily available. Which brand of ibuprofen (or the student could test another type of pain reliever) dissolves the most quickly?Does the pH of juice change over time?Insects can sense light and dark. Can they still see light if its only red or blue, etc.?How well does a football helmet really protect against impact? You could use a skating helmet or any other protective gear, depending on what you have available.How does the concentration of chlorine in water affect the rate or percentage of seed germination?What is the effect of watering schedules on the germination (or growth rate) of seeds from a certain plant?How does the presence of a given medication in water affect the survivability of Daphnia?Does the presence of de-icer salt affect the movement behavior of earthworms?Does the bounciness of a golf ball relate to its ability to be hit long-distance?Does the species wood affect the rate at which it burns? Its heat output?Does the mass of a baseball bat relate to the distance the baseball travels ? Is the paper towel brand that absorbs the most water the same as the brand that absorbs the most oil?
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
A Little Fox Never Hurt Anyone A Little Fox Never Hurt Anyone A Little Fox Never Hurt Anyone By Kate Evans We all know that good looking women are described as foxy. But foxes, with their rusty color and reputation for craftiness, can be used in many other colorful, unique, and descriptive expressions. For example, A foxs sleep is when one feigns indifference while keeping a close eye on someone. A wise fox will never rob his neighbors hen-roost, meaning a thief should steal from people far from home so as not to get caught. Theres my personal favorite, I gave him a flap with a fox-tail, which means that I made a fool of someone. To set a fox to keep the geese would be someone who trusts those who should clearly not be trusted with important tasks. If its a case of the fox and the grapes, then someone really wants something, cant obtain it, so they pretend they never wanted it in the first place. And of course, theres the often relevant when a fox preaches, take care of your geese. So, go off and flap someone with a fox-tail or just try and work one of these expressions into your next short story! Apollo Theater, Ms. Brown had the limo pull to a stop before a 100-foot-long Chyna Doll billboard, featuring a very foxy Foxy, clad only in a blue feather bikini. (www.nytimes.com) Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:45 Synonyms for Ã¢â¬Å"FoodÃ¢â¬ Awoken or Awakened?Ulterior and Alterior
Sunday, November 3, 2019
Starbucks in China - Coursework Example How this coffee shop at the neighborhood did invade and changed the lifestyle of many It is a sort of colonization. I call it Starbuckzation. Starbucks has been around since 1971. According to Starbucks Coffee Company (2007) history, it started by selling roasted coffee beans in Seattle's Pike Place Market bearing the name of Starbucks Coffee, Tea and Spices. It was in 1981 when this coffee shop caught the attention of plastics salesman Howard Schultz (Wilson, 2005); Schultz is now the Chairman of Starbucks Coffee Company. But it was never easy for him to turn the business into an international giant that it is now. In 1982, Schultz was hired as Starbucks' head of marketing; shortly thereafter he was sent to Italy for an international house ware show It is where he got the idea of turning Starbucks into an espresso bar (Wilson, 2005). But things did not immediately come his way. The opportunity came in 1987 when Starbucks was up for sale; Schultz was able to raise the money, remade the establishment, and started history in the coffee industry. Today, Starbucks has 6,281 company-operated stores and 3,533 licensed stores in 50 states of US plus the District of Colombia It has also established coffee houses in 39 countries outside US (Starbucks, 2007). It is not quite surprising though that Starbucks is a success in the United States of America since a cupful of steaming coffee has almost become a necessity to every American. What is more amazing is its success in Asia particularly in China that can be considered, by far, as Starbucks' largest market outside North America. Traditionally, Chinese are fond with tea, which they say has healthy benefits. How come that a tea-drinking country could easily shift to coffee Starbucks started its operation in China in the late '90s. The company began with a store in Taiwan in March 1998, spread in Mainland China at the China World Trade Building in Beijing in January 1999, then in Hong Kong in May 2000, and Macau in August 2002; to date, there are almost 500 stores all over China (Starbucks China, 2007). Has China really fell under Starbuckzation It could be so. However, Starbucks' phenomenal success in China has not been copied in Australia. Since its first store was established at Sydney's CBD in July 2000, Starbucks has set-up only 50 stores in Sydney, Brisbane, the Gold Coast, the Sunshine Coast, Canberra, and Melbourne today (Starbucks Australia, 2007). It could be attributed to a number of cafes in Australia. Geographical and social settings also contribute to this aspect. 1. Efficiency Among the keys to attain success in any field is efficiency. In Starbucks' case, it is the coffee house's capability to deliver the goods regardless of its customers' race or creed. There is a cup of flavorful coffee that will suit the discriminating taste buds of everyone. It has a blend from various regions; coffees are blended depending on the flavors that characterize a certain country. There is Colombia Nario Supremo, Guatemala Antiqua, Arabian Mocha Sanani, Komodo Dragon Blend, and Sumatra, to name a few. Apart from coffee, Starbucks also offer tasty cakes and pastries. There is also a variety of
Friday, November 1, 2019
Analyse the component of a web-marketing strategy and explain how the HRBP can add value to the marketing department - Assignment Example The purpose of this paper is to analyze web marketing and how the human resource business partner (HRBP) position can add value to the marketing department. Internet marketing is a new brand of marketing that was born in the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s. During that decade the business world was taken by storm as new dot com companies began to appear by the hundreds each day. At the end of the decade the infamous internet bubble burst as too many companies penetrated the marketplace at once with less than innovative ideas. The business world has changed and web marketing has become a critical success factor in the 21st century. The amount of e-commerce volume has increased a lot. The US e-commerce marketplace reached $153 billion in sales in 2010 (Plunkett Research, 2011). Due to the size of the market companies have to look for ways to improve their web marketing function in order to increase their overall volumes of sales. There are advantages and cons associated with the use of web marketing. On e of the greatest features of web marketing is the ability to increase the customer base of a company. Through the power of the internet web marketing in theory has the capability of reaching 100% of the global population once the world becomes fully online. Another advantage of the implementation of web marketing is cost. Web marketing campaigns are much cheaper than the use of traditional media. It can cost thousands or even millions of dollars to run a 30 second advertisement on television. In 2010 CBS charged between $2.5 million to $2.8 million for a 30 second ad during the Super Bowl (Cbsnews, 2010). A third advantage of the use of web marketing is that a campaign can be implemented very fast. Also web marketing can be beneficial because the advertiser can customized the ads based on the target audience. Despite all the benefits associated with web marketing there are also cons. The use of marketing advertising techniques such as email advertising or pop up ads can be perceive d by the general population as spam. Spam can be defined as unsolicited email often of a commercial nature that are sent indiscriminately to multiple mailing lists, individuals, or newsgroups (Answers, 2011). Another con of the use of web marketing campaigns is that at times it can be difficult to measure the results of a web marketing initiative. A third disadvantage of web marketing is that people can become skeptical about the trustworthiness of the deals offered in the internet due to the large amount of internet scams that have occurred in the past (Tun, 2009). The HRBP position can add a lot of value to the marketing department. Most marketing departments are limited by the internal capabilities and resources within a company. A firm could accomplish more if it joined forces with other marketing teams. The HRBP can help a company by negotiating strategic alliances with other firms. A strategic alliance can be defined as an arrangement between two or more companies that decided to share resources for a particular project (Answers, 2011). The use of strategic alliances is a market entry strategy that can enable firms to penetrate foreign locations. The marketing depar
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Collapse of Lehman Brothers - Term Paper Example The company was experiencing a mass exit by clients, dramatic fall in stock value and asset devaluation. Their bid for bankruptcy protection was the largest in the world history. Corporate Malfeasance Corporate malfeasance is a legal concept that denotes the art of falsely manipulating accounts such that the financial position of a company appears stable and progressive. Following their collapse, top executives of former corporate giants, such as WorldCom, Enron and AIG, faced civil suits and criminal charges with allegations of corporate malfeasance. Corporate malfeasance was one of the leading causes for the collapse of Lehman in light of the financial crisis of the late 2000. James Cramer calls the LehmanÃ¢â¬â¢s malfeasance case Ã¢â¬Ëfinancial engineeringÃ¢â¬â¢ (Cramer 2). He believes that with the knowledge of top officials, CFOs and CEO Dick Fuld, the accounting department manipulated the financial records in a bid to make the company appear more venerable to attract inves tors and retain clients. LehmanÃ¢â¬â¢s financial engineering had gone on for a few years amid growing worries among top officials that the company was over-leveraged. The advice of chief financial officers and other top officials spearheaded the Ã¢â¬Ëfinancial engineeringÃ¢â¬â¢ gimmick through counterfeit records to hide LehmanÃ¢â¬â¢s vulnerability to collapse (Taibbi 98). Sources retrieved from the Wall Street Journal indicate that CEO Fuld was aware of the imminent collapse. He was manipulated by a clique of shadowy bankers and top investors who wanted to be overnight billionaires by urging him to make money-losing decisions. Corporate malfeasance did not go far. The truth eventually emerged and LehmanÃ¢â¬â¢s estimated $619 billion debt was exposed. This was after the audit report of a court-appointed financial examiner was released. Fuld had admitted in writing that he had commissioned the financial engineering gimmick as a systematic ploy of buying the company more tim e. This was by creating Ã¢â¬Å"a materially misleading picture of the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s financial condition in late 2007 to 2008Ã¢â¬ (Cramer 2). LehmanÃ¢â¬â¢s accounting gimmick dubbed Ã¢â¬Ërepo 105Ã¢â¬â¢ allowed the sale of company securities through a signed obligation to re-purchase them after a while so that they can do so at a lower price. This would temporarily remove such asset securities from the balance sheet. Likewise, the untimely sale of securities allowed the influx of liquid cash into the bank thus effectively lowering financial coverage ratios. These subtle and corrupt financial gimmicks were done behind closed doors keeping investors and other stakeholders in the oblivion (Sorkin 8). The US Housing/ Subprime Mortgage Crisis Economic experts link LehmanÃ¢â¬â¢s predicament to the bursting the housing or real estate market bubble in the U.S in the summer of 2008. The untimely subprime mortgage crisis was another leading cause for the collapse of Lehman Brothers I nc. In 2007, the real estate market in the U.S had registered a remarkable progress amid the housing bubble. Housing prices soared, reached the elastic limit and Wall Street began to experience a huge increase in home foreclosure rates and equally high subprime mortgage delinquencies. Subsequently, securities backed by mortgages declined significantly. The steep decline made re-financing very difficult.
Monday, October 28, 2019
Brave New World and Ethics Essay Barely peeking over the horizon the barren landscape sparkled as rays of light pierced the darkness driving away the aches and pain from their tired bodies. Straining his eyes he saw the river glowing far in the distance looking so harmless in daylight. Shuddering softly the dark churning waters of the previous night haunted him as he look at the serene form of his wife as she lay in fitful slumber. Turning around he allowed himself one last chance to partake in sweet memories of friends, family, his country, all left behind. As his wife stirred he turned around. He never looked back. Forward they walked towards opportunities untold. Forward they walk towards a new beginning. Forward they walked in America, home of the free. For centuries humans have forsaken the comforts of their current situations in search of a better existence for themselves and their families. From migrating thousands of miles to overthrowing governments humans have a knack for defying the odds successfully in pursuit of their morals and values. Descendant from a primitive apelike people, humans developed over thousands of years morphing into a super species where science is exalted in the quest to dominate nature. In the modern era, scientific and technological advancement are idolized as successes in these fields test the limits of our imaginations. With recent discoveries in genetics and the decoding of the human genome, scientists and politicians today work tirelessly towards complete control of the human body, plants, animals with dazzling results and further successes projected even up to the creation of synthetic life. However, many lines of research have sparked considerable controversy as society moves into an age of untold possibilities. The book Brave New World by Aldous Huxely portrays a futuristic society where humans have been molded into a cast system through chemical mutations, mind altering drugs, and psychological conditioning. With all classic philosophy, literature, and history destroyed as relics of the past, society stands static without any knowledge of a societal reality more primitive or advanced than the status quo. Despite current societal movement towards genetic modification and enhancement, the censorship and elimination of creative perspective present in HuxelyÃ¢â¬â¢s utopia contradict the individualism and sense of self gave driving society forward. Modern society will never mirror HuxelyÃ¢â¬â¢s utopia do to the innate spirituality and drive for growth that characterizes human nature. Brave New World depicts a society where humans control their bodies and environment through chemical treatments. Although scientifically impossible, this basic premise of environmental control becomes a reality when utilizing the principles of modern genomics. Over the last two decades scientists have gradually decoded every gene and strand of DNA that allows the human body to function. The gravity of this feat is insurmountable opening the door to limitless possibilities. But despite identifying several the causes of several common polygenic disorders (disorders in which several gene are implicated) and identifying the genes responsible for several Mendelian disorders, the promise of Gene therapy has Ã¢â¬Å"proved nothing but a pipe dreamÃ¢â¬ (Kass). Beyond the elimination of disease, genetically enhanced and altered crops have increased in popularity. Several strains of crops such as cotton, corn, and soybeans have been enhanced with artificial genes that produce insecticides or resistance to herbicides. Furthermore, scientists are attempting to genetically modify plants, insects, and bacteria. Geneticists hope that in the near future genetically engineered plants will have the ability to feed on toxic pollutants. And certain bacteria have already been altered to produce chemicals valuable in manufacturing such as adipic acid, one of the ingredients in nylon, and teraphthalic acid, a component of a specialist polyester (Kass). With the possibilities of producing indestructible crops, plants that eliminate pollutants, and genetically modified fauna to produce chemicals, the economic stability and general prosperity depicted in Brave New World may become a reality in years to come. Furthermore, HuxleyÃ¢â¬â¢s utopia presented a society where being a mother or father was considered vile and disgusting. Children were manufactured in Ã¢â¬Å"Hatchery And Conditioning CentersÃ¢â¬ where embryos were designed and enhanced with a complex cocktail of chemical additives in a manufacturing process. Currently modern technology has not developed a method of substituting natural birth conditions and genetically altering an embryo is close to impossible (Kass). But the prospect of genetically modified embryos dubbed Ã¢â¬Å"Designer BabiesÃ¢â¬ lurks in the future. When these techniques develop society will possess the capabilities of genetically determining the capabilities of newborns despite whether artificial birth exists. From an ideological view, the extreme dehumanization in Brave New World may seem difficult to comprehend, but as generation builds on generation, the evolution of cultural practices and values inches society closer a similar state. As science allows society to conquer infertility or improve the genetic makeup of a child, birth moves one step closer to a manufacturing process (Carr). Even when moving beyond the technological transformations, the dominant explanation of organic life is the theory of evolution which directly undermines the value of human life (Carr). Rather than beings with spirits and a divine purpose, society diminishes mankind to nothing more than a meaningless collection of cells whose purpose is reproduction. Regardless of the technological and ideological influences that create a level of symmetry with HuxelyÃ¢â¬â¢s utopia, our society can never reach the extremes presented in Brave New World because the core cultural values depicted directly contradict those our society ascribe to. Benjamin Franklin once said, Ã¢â¬Å"Without continual growth and progress, such words as improvement, achievement, and success have no meaningÃ¢â¬ . Brave New World depicted such a society where those not in a drug induced coma or suffering from purposeful cognitive damage were confined to a bland meaningless existence. Our society today is designed to award the innovative and talented as all struggle to achieve individual success. Emphasizing individual growth and achievement, our society will never sit static and unchanged as the world depicted in HuxelyÃ¢â¬â¢s work.